Inflammation, Reproduction, and the Goldilocks Principle

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR, volume 37)

Abstract

Modulation of reproductive function in response to ecological stressors allows an individual to conceive and carry a fetus under optimal conditions relative to that individual’s environment. Stress can affect inflammation and inflammatory processes that are integral to reproductive function. Ovulation and implantation, in particular, are driven by local expression of cytokines in the granulosa cells and endometrial tissue, and some evidence suggests that local expression may be impacted by ecological factors impacting systemic inflammation. Further, ovarian hormones are often mediators of inflammatory processes that control endometrial functioning, and tissue remodeling that occurs in both the proliferative and secretory phases of the endometrial cycle is also inflammatory in nature.As a result, the study of ovarian and endometrial functioning creates the opportunity to test questions regarding a trade-off that characterizes human pregnancy: close maternal-fetal contact to improve resource transmission, yet higher vulnerabilities to pathologies related to energetics and inflammation such as gestational diabetes and choriodecidual inflammatory syndrome. Several ecological factors have been shown to impact reproductive functioning: psychosocial stress, energetics, and immunological stress. While those with the strongest correlative effect are energetic, both psychosocial and immunological stresses are relevant to this discussion because the stress response – particularly when chronically activated – induces inflammation. Previous and new research both on psychosocial stressors and inflammatory processes have found tenuous relationships with reproductive hormones and menstrual cycle length. Further, inflammation has a significant impact on fetal loss Thus, the goal of this chapter is to demonstrate what evidence supports a relationship between inflammation and reproductive functioning, how ecological factors that induce inflammation produces variation in rates of ovulation, implantation, and fetal loss, and how such relationships might be better tested in future work.

Keywords

Inflammation C-reactive protein Ovarian function Endometrial function Pregnancy Reproductive ecology Human 

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

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