Functional Assessment of Microbial and Viral Infections by Real-Time Cellular Analysis System

  • Xiao Xu
  • Min Zheng


Microbes and viruses infect their host cells and in doing so alter the physiological functions of the host cells leading to diseases. Analysis of pathogen-infected cells provides critical information with regards to functional assessment of microbe–host and virus–host interactions in addition to serving as an important diagnosis for infection. As early as 1950s, hemagglutination assay using red blood cells (RBC) were employed to detect the presence of hemagglutinin antigen-bearing virus particles [1]. Recently this assay was also used for bacterial detection [2]. Some viral families and many bacteria have envelope or surface proteins, which are able to agglutinate human or animal RBC and bind to N-acetylneuraminic acid. As each of the agglutinating molecule attaches to multiple RBCs, a lattice structure will form, allowing for visual inspection.


Natural Killer Cell Botulinum Toxin West Nile Virus H1N1 Virus Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ACEA Biosciences, Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Treatment for Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated HospitalZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina

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