• Soad Fuentes Alabí
  • Nehal S. Parikh


In 1910, the pathologist J. H. Wright introduced the term Neuroblastoma, identifying neural fibers and nests of immature cells of the fetal adrenal medulla, previously diagnosed as sarcomas (Semin Cancer Biol 21:217–28, 2011). The incidence of neuroblastoma is not well known in most resource-limited settings as there is lack of epidemiological database in many settings (Int J Cancer 42:511–20, 1988). There is considerable variability in institutional ability to diagnose, stage, and provide therapeutic options for patients in different settings, as it is strongly influenced by resource availability. This has led to variability in outcomes for patients with similar stage neuroblastoma in these settings. In 1971, Dr. Evans suggested the first system of stratification that has guided consistent advancement of neuroblastoma treatments (Cancer 27:374–8, 1971). Therapy guided by risk stratification using combination of clinical features and tumor biology provides us the basis for assessing response and modifying care for children with neuroblastoma. This approach led to significant improvement in treatment strategies and outcomes (Prog Clin Biol Res 271:509–24, 1988; Br J Cancer 100:1471–82, 2009).


MYCN Amplification Neuroblastoma Tumor International Neuroblastoma Stage System Small Round Blue Cell Tumor MYCN Status 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital Nacional de Niños Benjamín BloomSan SalvadorEl Salvador
  2. 2.Connecticut Children’s Medical CenterHartfordUSA

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