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Pollutants in Freshwater: The Case of Pharmaceuticals

  • Anja Coors
  • Thomas Knacker
Chapter

Abstract

Man-made chemicals produced intentionally or inadvertently are threatening water resources worldwide. These so-called anthropogenic pollutants can be transported globally by air and water and may affect areas that were supposed pristine, such as the Antarctic or high mountain regions. This chapter deals with the question of how pollution of surface waters can be assessed and what is being done to avoid or limit pollution. An important regulatory measure is a procedure called environmental risk assessment. With this process, a chemical is evaluated for its potential environmental impact in a prospective way (i.e., before it is marketed after which it is likely to be released into the environment). Key aspects of environmental risk assessment are illustrated here using the example of pharmaceuticals, a group of anthropogenic chemicals that have only recently been recognized as potentially worrisome environmental pollutants.

Keywords

Wastewater Treatment Plant Environmental Risk Assessment Ethinyl Estradiol Environmental Compartment Risk Quotient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

 Chapter 3 is dedicated to the memory of Thomas Knacker, whose untimely death preceded its publication. We appreciate the valuable comments of Ed Topp and Jan Koschorreck on an earlier version of this chapter.

Selected parts of an earlier version of this chapter have been published previously in German as Knacker T. and Coors A.: Ökotoxikologische Bewertung von anthropogenen Stoffen. acatech Materialien Nr. 10. Munich, 2011.

Glossary

μg/L

Micrograms (one millionth of a gram) per liter

Acaricide

Chemical used to kill mites

Anthropogenic

Man-made

Antibiotic

Pharmaceutical used to treat bacterial infections

Bioaccumulation

Process by which a chemical substance increases its concentration in a living organism over time, compared to the chemical’s concentration in the environment

Biological Diversity

Variety of life on earth, including diversity of ecosystems, species, and genes and the ecological processes that support them.

Biosolids

Sludge produced during wastewater treatment

Crustacean

Subgroup of arthropods that includes, among others, crabs and lobsters

DDT

Persistent insecticide that is now banned from most uses, except in some parts of the world (e.g., for malaria control)

Diclofenac

Anti-inflammatory pain-relieving pharmaceutical

Ecosystem

Complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and their interrelations in a particular unit of space

Ecotoxicology

Field of science that integrates toxicology and ecology

Endocrine Disruptor

Substance that interferes with the hormonal system of living organisms, including but not limited to humans

Ethinyl Estradiol

Synthetic derivative of the natural hormone estradiol; an active substance in contraceptive pills

Eutrophication

Excess primary bioproduction caused by increased input of nutrients

Environmental Exposure

Contact of an organism with an agent (e.g., a chemical) in the environment

Fluoxetine

Psychoactive pharmaceutical prescribed, for example, for severe depression

Food Web

Ecological concept that describes an ecosystem based the connections of species in a network of energy transfer

Green Design

Consideration of the potential environmental impact of a pharmaceutical during its development and production

Habitat

Area within which a particular organism lives

Hazard

Potential of a substance to cause adverse effects in an organism, system, or (sub)population exposed to that substance

Heavy Metal

Group of metallic elements defined, for example, by high atomic weights or density (e.g., mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, lead)

Hormone

Substance produced in one part of the body and functions as a messenger to influence cells in other parts of the body

In vitro Test

Bioassay conducted outside living organisms by using, for example, cell cultures

Intersex

Individual organisms with features of both sexes

MEC

Measured environmental concentration of a substance under study in a specific environment

Municipal Wastewater

Wastewater that is the composite of liquid and water-carried wastes associated with the use of water for drinking, cooking, cleaning, washing, hygiene, sanitation, or other domestic purposes

NOEC

No observed effect concentration of a chemical

Nutrients

Chemical compounds that are involved in the construction of living tissue and are needed by both plants and animals

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Parasite

Organism that lives in or on another organism (the host) at the expense of this host

Pathogen

Disease-causing organism

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl

PEC

Predicted environmental concentration of a chemical

Persistence

Relates to the time scale during which a substance can be degraded by natural mechanisms

Pesticide

Substance, preparation, or organism used to control or destroy any pest

Pharmaceutical

Group of chemicals designed to treat medical conditions and diseases or fight parasites in humans and animals

PNEC

Predicted no effect concentration of a chemical

Polar Substance

Characterized by a difference in electric charge across the molecule; usually dissolve better in water than nonpolar substances

Pollutant–Emerging

Pollutant that has recently been discovered

Pollution/Pollutants

Contamination of the environment with a pollutant (e.g., a chemical or noise) that has a negative effect

Pristine Area

Area thought to be not affected by human activities

Receptor

Compound in the body that binds a drug and causes an effect

Renal Failure

Sudden loss of kidney functionality

Risk Assessment

Formal process by which the risk resulting from a specific use or occurrence of a chemical or physical agent is evaluated

Sedimentation

Tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of water and rest against a barrier (on rocks, the bottom, plants)

Sludge

Semi-solid stream of materials in sewage after removal of coarse, insoluble materials

Toxicity

Degree to which a substance can harm living organisms

Trophic Level/Position

Simple ecological food chain possibly consisting of three trophic levels: primary producer (plant), primary consumer (herbivore), and secondary consumer (predator)

Zooplankton

Small animals that live floating in open water bodies

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbHFlörsheim/MainGermany

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