Resilience Through Violence and Bullying Prevention in Schools

  • Jennifer Taub
  • Melissa Pearrow


When asked to write a chapter focusing on school for this book, we thought of the many fine books, chapters, and articles written about the multitude of school-based programs targeted at the prevention of social and emotional problems in children and adolescents. The majority of these programs target specific issues, such as drug and alcohol prevention, weapons-reduction, school–community partnerships, school-based mental health clinics, and school-based family support services (to name, but a few). All of them target the social and emotional well-being of our nation’s students, and could be said to broadly foster resilience. In this chapter, however, we will not be discussing programs that target youth who have been identified as having problems, programs with a clinical or mental health focus, or other programs that have a secondary or tertiary prevention focus. Programs that target students with identified problems are more likely to have a clinically focused symptom-reduction emphasis rather than a wellness-promotion resiliency model (Cowen, 1994; Cowen, Hightower, Pedro-Carroll, Work, Wyman, & Haffey, 1996). They typically target a small proportion of the overall student population; for example, the U.S. Department of Education (2007) estimates that 0.67% of students between 6 and 21 years of age are identified as having an emotional disturbance and qualifying them for services under IDEA. We strongly support such programs and believe they have a vital role in our nation’s schools. We also believe that such programs contribute, directly or indirectly, to the reduction of factors related to violence in schools, as well as the promotion of factors related to resilience in our nation’s student population.


Prevention Program School Climate Perspective Taking Violence Prevention Good Behavior Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology, 39, 324–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aber, L. J., Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., Chaudry, N., & Samples, F. (1998). Resolving conflict creatively: Evaluating the developmental effects of a school-based violence prevention program in neighborhood and classroom context. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 187–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wold, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer, N. S., Lozano, P., & Rivara, F. P. (2007). The effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in public middle schools: A controlled trial. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 266–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bostic, J. Q., & Brunt, C. (2011). Cornered: An approach to school bullying and cyberbullying and forensic implications. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of N. America., 20(3), 447–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beland, K. (1992). Second Step: A violence prevention curriculum for grades 1–5, Revised. Seattle, WA: Committee for Children.Google Scholar
  7. Black, S. A., & Jackson, E. (2007). Using bullying incident density to evaluate the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme. School Psychology International, 28, 623–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., DuBay, T., Dahlberg, L. L., & Daytner, G. (1996). Using multimedia to teach conflict-resolution skills to young adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12(5), 65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N. S., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 462–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradshaw, C. P., Zmuda, J. H., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2009). Longitudinal impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on educational outcomes in high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 926–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., et al. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2002). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention and Treatment, 5, Retrieved from Nov, 2011,
  13. Chilenski, S. M., Bumbarger, B. K., Kyler, S. & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Reducing youth violence and delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-based Programs Initiative. Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human Development at the Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  14. Coalition for Evidence Based Policy. (2011). Social programs that work. Top Tier Initiative Expert Panel. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  15. Comer, J. P. (1980). School power: Implications of an intervention project (Understanding and preventing violence, Vol. 1). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Committee for Children. (1992). Second step: A violence prevention curriculum. Seattle, WA: Committee for Children.Google Scholar
  17. Cooke, M. B., Ford, J., Levine, J., Bourke, C., Newell, L., & Lapidus, G. (2007). The effects of city-wide implementation of “Second Step” on elementary school students’ prosocial and aggressive behaviors. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 93–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 149–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cowen, E. L., Hightower, A. D., Pedro-Carroll, J. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., & Haffey, W. G. (1996). School-based prevention for children at risk: The primary mental health project. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Curtis, C., & Norgate, R. (2007). An evaluation of the promoting alternative thinking strategies curriculum at key stage 1. Educational Psychology in Practice, 23, 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeJong, W. (1994). Building the peace: The resolving conflict creatively program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  22. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., McClaskey, C. L., & Brown, M. M. (1986). Social competence in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 51(Serial No. 213).Google Scholar
  23. Doll, B., & Cummings, J. (2008). Why population-based services are essential for school mental health and how to make them happen in your school. In B. Doll & J. Cummings (Eds.), Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to ­promoting the competency and wellness of children (pp. 1–20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press in cooperation with the National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  24. Doll, B., Jones, K., Osborn, A., Dooley, K., & Turner, A. (2011). The promise and caution of resilience models for schools. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 652–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doll, B., & Lyon, M. (1998). Risk and resilience: Implications for the practice of school psychology. School Psychology Review, 27, 348–363.Google Scholar
  26. Durlak, J. A., & Wells, A. M. (1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 115–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards, D., Hunt, M. H., Meyers, J., Grogg, K. R., & Jarrett, O. (2005). Acceptability and student outcomes of a violence prevention curriculum. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 401–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Embry, D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5, 273–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Embry, D., Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., Powell, K. E., & Atha, H. (1996). PeaceBuilders: A theoretically driven, school-based model for early violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12(5 Suppl.), 91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Englander, E. (2011). MARC report: Bullying in grades 3-12 in Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center at Bridgewater State University. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  31. Esquivel, G. B., Doll, B., & Oades-Sese, G. V. (2011). Introduction to the special issue: Resilience in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 649–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., Sullivan, T. N., & Kung, E. M. (2003). Evaluation of the responding in peaceful and positive ways (RIPP) seventh grade violence prevention curriculum. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., & White, K. (2001). Evaluation of responding in peaceful and positive ways (RIPP): A school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 451–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Farrington, D. P. (2002). The effectiveness of school-based violence prevention programs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 748–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2004). Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Journal of Pediatrics, 144(1), 17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., Liau, A. K., Guo, S., Powell, K. E., Atha, H., et al. (2003). Initial behavior outcomes for the PeaceBuilders universal school-based violence prevention program. Developmental Psychology, 39, 292–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Flannery, D. J., & Williams, L. (1999). Effective youth violence prevention. In T. P. Gullotta & S. J. McElhaney (Eds.), Violence in homes and communities: Prevention, intervention, and treatment (pp. 207–244). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Frey, K. S., Nolen, S. B., Edstrom, L. V., & Hirschstein, M. K. (2005). Effects of a school-based social-emotional competence program: Linking children’s goals, attributions, and behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 171–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldston, S. E. (1985). Primary prevention: Historical perspectives and a blueprint for action. American Psychologist, 41, 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenberg, M. T., & Kusché, C. (1996). A. The PATHS Project: A preventive intervention for children. Final report to the National Institute for Health.Google Scholar
  41. Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C., & Mihalic, S. F. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention, Book Ten: Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS). Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
  42. Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P. Y., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., et al. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention program among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 1605–1611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hahn, R., Fuqua-Whitley, D., Wethington, H., Lowy, J., Crosby, A., Fullilove, M., et al. (2007). Effectiveness of universal school-based programs to prevent violent and aggressive behavior: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2 Suppl.), S114–S129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harris, V. W., & Sherman, J. A. (1973). Use and analysis of the “good behavior game” to reduce disruptive class-room behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 405–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hausman, A., Pierce, G., & Briggs, L. (1996). Evaluation of comprehensive violence prevention education: Effects on student behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 19, 104–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Henderson, N., & Milstein, M. M. (1996). Resiliency in school: Making it happen for students and educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  49. Hoagwood, K., & Erwin, H. D. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based mental health services for children: A 10-year research review. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 435–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holsen, I., Iversen, A. C., & Smith, B. (2009). Universal social competence programme in school: Does it work for children with low socio-economic background? Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2(2), 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hudley, C., & Graham, S. (1993). An attributional intervention to reduce peer-directed aggression among African-American boys. Child Development, 64, 124–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). Urban delinquency and substance abuse. Research Summary. Rockville, MD: Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, D., & Johnson, T. (1995). Why violence prevention programs don’t work—and what does. Educational Leadership, 52, 63–68.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, J. P., Schwartz, R. A., Livingston, M., & Slate, J. R. (2000). What makes a good elementary school? A critical examination. The Journal of Educational Research, 93, 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kleinman, K. E., & Saigh, P. A. (2011). The effects of the Good Behavior Game on the conduct of regular education New York City high school students. Behavior Modification, 35, 95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Krug, E. G., Dahlberg, L. L., Brener, N. D., Ryan, G. W., & Powell, K. E. (1997). The impact of an elementary school-based violence prevention program on visits to the school nurse. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 13, 459–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lannie, A. L., & McCurdy, B. L. (2007). Preventing disruptive behavior in the urban classroom: Effects of the Good Behavior Game on student and teacher behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 1, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lantieri, L., DeJong, W., & Dutrey, J. (1996). Waging peace in our schools: The resolving conflict creatively program. In A. M. Hoffman (Ed.), Schools, violence, and society (pp. 241–251). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  59. Larsen, T., & Samdal, O. (2008). Facilitating the implementation and sustainability of Second Step. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 52, 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leff, S. S., Power, T. J., Manz, P. H., Costigan, T. E., & Nabors, L. A. (2001). School-based aggression prevention programs for young children: Current status and implications for violence prevention. School Psychology Review, 30, 344–362.Google Scholar
  61. Macklem, G. (2011). Evidence-based school mental health services: Affect education, emotion regulation training, and cognitive behavioral therapy. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Masten, A. S., Best, K., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contribution from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McCurdy, B. L., Lannie, A. L., & Barnabas, E. (2009). Reducing disruptive behavior in an urban school cafeteria: An extension of the Good Behavior Game. Journal of School Psychology, 47, 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naglieri, J. A., LeBuffe, P., & Shapiro, V. B. (2011). Universal screening for social-emotional competencies: A study of the reliability and validity of the Dessa-Mini. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 660–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nickerson, A. B., Mele, D., & Princiotta, D. (2008). Attachment and empathy as predictors of roles as defenders or outsiders in bullying interactions. Journal of School Psychology, 46(6), 687–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olweus, D. (1997). Bully/victim problems in school: Knowledge base and an effective intervention program. Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 170–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Olweus, D., & Limber, S. (2010). Bullying in school: Evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. F. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention, Book Nine: Bullying Prevention Program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
  69. Overstreet, S., & Mathews, T. (2011). Challenges associated with exposure to chronic trauma: Using a public health framework to foster resilient outcomes among youth. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 738–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Park-Higgerson, H., Perumean-Chaney, S. E., Bartolucci, A. A., Grimley, D. M., & Singh, K. P. (2008). An evaluation of school-based violence prevention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of School Health, 78, 465–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Payton, J., Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., Schellinger, K. B., & Pachan, M. (2008). The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Chicago: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  72. Pepler, C. L. (2006). Bullying interventions: A binocular perspective. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 16–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Perry, C. L., & Jessor, R. (1985). The concept of health promotion and the prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 169–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Petersen, G. J., Pietrzak, D., & Speaker, K. M. (1998). The enemy within: A national study on school violence and prevention. Urban Education, 33, 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Power, T. J., Mautone, J. A., & Ginsburg-Block, M. (2010). Training school psychologists for prevention and intervention in a three-tiered model. In M. R. Shinn & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems in a three-tiered model including RTI (pp. 151–173). Bethesda, MD: NASP.Google Scholar
  76. President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Remarks by President Bush in announcing the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Retrieved on June 1, 2008 Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  77. Ransford, C. R., Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Small, M., & Jackson, L. (2009). The role of teachers’ psychological experiences and perceptions of curriculum supports on the implementation of a social and emotional learning curriculum. School Psychology Review, 38, 510–532.Google Scholar
  78. Reiss, D., & Price, R. H. (1996). National research agenda for prevention research: The National Institute of Mental Health Report. American Psychologist, 51, 1109–1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reiss, A. J., & Roth, J. A. (Eds.). (1993). Understanding and preventing violence (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  80. Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shapiro, J. P., Burgoon, J. D., Welker, C. J., & Clough, J. B. (2002). Evaluation of the Peacemakers program: School-based violence prevention for students in grades four through eight. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1978). Problem-solving techniques in child rearing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., & Carvalho, M. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 376–385.Google Scholar
  84. Snell, P. A., & Englander, E. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization and behaviors among girls: Applying research findings in the field. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 510–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Society for Prevention Research. (2004). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  86. Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2011). Functional assessment and positive support strategies for promoting resilience: Effects on teachers and high-risk children. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 686–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Storr, C. L., Ialongo, N. S., Kellam, S. G., & Anthony, J. C. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66, 51–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35, 245–259.Google Scholar
  90. Sylvester, L., & Frey, K. (1997). Summary of “Second Step” program evaluations (all grade levels). Seattle, WA: Committee for Children.Google Scholar
  91. Tani, F., Greenman, P. S., & Schneider, B. H. (2003). Bullying and the big five. School Psychology International, 24, 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Taub, J. (2002). Evaluation of the “Second Step” violence prevention program in a rural elementary school. School Psychology Review, 31, 186–200.Google Scholar
  93. Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., & Sacco, F. C. (2006). Teachers who bully students: A hidden trauma. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52, 187–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., & Sacco, F. C. (2004). The role of the bystander in the social architecture of bullying and violence in schools and communities. Annals of NY Academy of Sciences, 1036, 215–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., Sacco, F. C., Gies, M. L., Evans, R., & Ewbank, R. (2001). Creating a peaceful school learning environment: A controlled study of an elementary school intervention to reduce violence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 808–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce. (2011). State government finances summary: 2009. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  97. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (2007). Number and percentage of children ages 3 to 5 and ages 6 to 21 served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), by race/ethnicity and type of disability. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  98. Vazsonyi, A. T., Belliston, B. M., & Flannery, D. J. (2004). Evaluation of a school-based, universal violence prevention program: Low-, Medium-, and High-Risk Children. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(2), 185–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weissberg, R. P., Caplan, M., & Harwood, R. L. (1991). Promoting competent young people in competence-enhancing environments: A systems-based perspective on primary prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 830–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weissberg, R. P., Caplan, M. Z., & Sivo, P. J. (1989). A new conceptual framework for establishing school-based social competence promotion programs. In L. A. Bond & B. E. Compas (Eds.), Primary prevention and promotion in the schools (Primary prevention of psychopathology, Vol. 12, pp. 255–296). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  101. Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Werthamer, L., Cooper, J. E. & Lombardi, J. (1993). Classroom prevention program manual. The Baltimore City Public Schools and The Johns Hopkins Prevention Center. Retrieved from Nov, 2011
  103. Wilson, D. B., Gottfredson, D. C., & Najaka, S. S. (2001). School-based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 17, 247–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yoon, J. (2004). Predicting teacher interventions in bullying situations. Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 37–45.Google Scholar
  105. Yoon, J., & Kerber, K. (2003). Bullying: Elementary teachers’ attitudes and intervention strategies. Research in Education, 69, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center, Inc.BostonUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations