Conclusions and Outlook
This work investigates the integration of information models and optimization models for routing in city logistics. The following areas have been discussed: recent challenges for city logistics service providers are presented in Part I. Attended home delivery exemplifies a time-critical application of routing in city logistics, underlining the necessity of time-dependent travel times. Technology and methodology for the collection, analysis and preparation of empirical travel times are presented in Part II. Resulting information models establish time-dependent travel time data sets of different volume, complexity, and reliability (Part III). Time-dependent optimization procedures incorporate time-dependent information models. They are investigated and evaluated by simulation of planning procedures for a fictitious logistics service provider (Part IV).