Advertisement

Habitus, Scaffolding, and Problem-Based Learning: Why Teachers’ Experiences as Students Matter

  • Brian R. Belland
Chapter
Part of the Explorations in the Learning Sciences, Instructional Systems and Performance Technologies book series (LSIS, volume 5)

Abstract

Despite evidence that it can help students learn higher-order thinking skills and gain deep content knowledge, problem-based learning (PBL) is not deployed on a large scale in K-12 classrooms. This conceptual chapter explores teacher’s past experiences, and resulting habitus, to explain the minimal extent of PBL in K-12 schools. Central to teachers’ abilities to implement PBL is their ability to provide scaffolding, and their habitus may interfere with this process. Implications for teacher education and teacher change are discussed.

Keywords

Professional Development Teacher Education Middle School Student Common Core State Standard Teacher Education Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by National Science Foundation Early CAREER Grant # 0953046. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed herein are my own and do not necessarily represent official positions of NSF.

References

  1. Anderson, S. E., & Maninger, R. M. (2007). Preservice teachers’ abilities, beliefs, and intentions regarding technology integration. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37(2), 151–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrew, L. (2007). Comparison of teacher educators’ instructional methods with the constructivist ideal. The Teacher Educator, 42(3), 157–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barab, S. A., & Dodge, T. (2008). Strategies for designing embodied curriculum. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboër, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 97–110). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Barron, B. J. S., Schwartz, D. L., Vye, N. J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech, L., et al. (1998). Doing with understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and project-based learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3/4), 271–311.Google Scholar
  5. Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Beach, R. W. (2011). Issues in analyzing the alignment of language arts common core standards with state standards. Educational Researcher, 40(4), 179–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belland, B. R. (2009). Using the theory of habitus to move beyond the study of barriers to technology integration. Computers & Education, 52, 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belland, B. R. (2010). Portraits of middle school students constructing evidence-based arguments during problem-based learning: The impact of computer-based scaffolds. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(3), 285–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belland, B. R., Glazewski, K. D., & Ertmer, P. A. (2009). Inclusion and problem-based learning: Roles of students in a mixed-ability group. Research in Middle Level Education, 32(9) Available online: http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/RMLEOnline/Articles/Vol32No9/tabid/1948/Default.aspx.
  10. Belland, B. R., Glazewski, K. D., & Richardson, J. C. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 401–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Belland, B. R., Glazewski, K. D., & Richardson, J. C. (2011). Problem-based learning and argumentation: Testing a scaffolding framework to support middle school students’ creation of evidence-based arguments. Instructional Science, 39, 667–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P. (1979). La distinction: Critique sociale du jugement [Distinction: Social critique of jugement]. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (2004). Science of science and reflexivity. Tr. R. Nice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Tr. R. Nice. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Brush, T., & Saye, J. W. (2009). Strategies for preparing preservice social studies teachers to integrate technology effectively: Models and practices. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 46–59.Google Scholar
  16. Bybee, R., McCrae, B., & Laurie, R. (2009). PISA 2006: An assessment of scientific literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(8), 865–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chin, C. (2006). Classroom interaction in science: Teacher questioning and feedback to student responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453–494). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Driver, R., Newton, P., & Osborne, J. (1998). Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms. Science Education, 84(3), 287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duschl, R. (2008). Science education in three-part harmony: Balancing conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals. Review of Research in Education, 32, 268–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ensor, P. (2001). From preservice mathematics teacher education to beginning teaching: A study in recontextualizing. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32(3), 296–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ertmer, P. A., & Simons, K. D. (2006). Jumping the implementation hurdle: Supporting the efforts of K-12 teachers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 40–54.Google Scholar
  24. Finkelstein, N., Hanson, T., Huang, C., Hirschman, B., & Huang, M. (2011). Effects of problem-based economics on high school economics instruction. NCEE Report number 2010-4002rev. Obtained June 15, 2011 from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee.
  25. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Gallagher, S. A., Stepien, W. J., & Rosenthal, H. (1992). The effects of problem-based learning on problem solving. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(4), 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodnough, K., & Cashion, M. (2006). Exploring problem-based learning in the context of high school science: Design and implementation issues. School Science and Mathematics, 106(7), 280–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hannafin, M., Land, S., & Oliver, K. (1999). Open-ended learning environments: Foundations, methods, and models. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models (A new paradigm of instructional theory, Vol. II, pp. 115–140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in ­problem-based learning and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hung, W. (2011). Theory to reality: A few issues in implementing problem-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 529–552.Google Scholar
  34. Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(4), 63–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jonassen, D. H., & Kim, B. (2010). Arguing to learn and learning to argue: Design guidelines and justifications. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(4), 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lawless, K. A., & Pellegrino, J. W. (2007). Professional development in integrating technology into teaching and learning: Knowns, unknowns, and ways to pursue better questions and answers. Review of Educational Research, 77, 575–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee, O., Penfield, R., & Maerten-Rivera, J. (2009). Effects of fidelity of implementation on science achievement gains among English language learners. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(7), 836–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lockhart, A., & Le Doux, J. (2005). A partnership for problem-based learning: Challenging students to consider open-ended problems involving gene therapy. The Science Teacher, 72(9), 29–33.Google Scholar
  39. Lohman, M. C., & Finkelstein, M. (2000). Designing groups in problem-based learning to promote problem-solving skill and self-directedness. Instructional Science, 28, 291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Loyens, S. M. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, R. M. J. P. (2008). Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marsh, J. (2006). Popular culture in the literacy curriculum: A Bourdieuan analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(2), 160–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McComas, W. F. (2008). Seeking historical examples to illustrate key aspects of the nature of science. Science & Education, 17, 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mertzman, T. (2008). Individualizing scaffolding: Teachers’ literacy interruptions of ethnic minority and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Journal of Research in Reading, 31(2), 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Noyes, A. (2004). (Re)Producing mathematics educators: A sociological perspective. Teaching Education, 15(3), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oliveira, A. W. (2010). Improving teacher questioning in science inquiry discussion through professional development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 422–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Osborne, J. (2010). Arguing to learn in science: The role of collaborative, critical discourse. Science, 328, 463–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Palmer, B. C., Rowell, C. G., & Brooks, M. A. (2005). Reflection and cognitive strategy instruction: Modeling active learning for pre-service teachers. Reading Horizons, 45(3), 195–216.Google Scholar
  48. Papinczak, T., Tunny, T., & Young, L. (2009). Conducting the symphony: A qualitative study of facilitation in problem-based learning tutorials. Medical Education, 43(4), 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pedersen, S., & Liu, M. (2002–2003). The transfer of problem-solving skills from a problem-based learning environment: The effect of modeling an expert’s cognitive processes. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35, 303–320.Google Scholar
  50. Pressley, M., Gaskins, I. W., Solic, K., & Collins, S. (2006). A portrait of benchmark school: How a school produces high achievement in students who previously failed. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 282–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ravitz, J. L., Becker, H. J., & Wong, Y. (2000). Constructivist-compatible beliefs and practices among US teachers. Teaching, learning, and computing: 1998 national survey report # 4. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations. (ERIC document reproduction number ED445657).Google Scholar
  52. Rickey, D., & Stacy, A. M. (2000). The role of metacognition in learning chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 77(7), 915–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sandoval, W. A., & Reiser, B. J. (2004). Explanation-driven inquiry: Integrating conceptual and epistemic scaffolds for scientific inquiry. Science Education, 88, 345–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stefl-Mabry, J., Powers, J. G., & Doll, C. (2005–2006). Creating and sustaining problem-based partnerships among graduate, undergraduate, and K-12 learners: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34(2), 131–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Torp, L., & Sage, S. (2002). Problems as possibilities: Problem-based learning for K-16 ­education. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  57. van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: A decade of research. Educational Psychology Review, 22, 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Clark, R. E., & de Crook, M. B. M. (2002). Blueprints for complex learning: The 4 C/ID model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(2), 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Windschitl, M., & Sahl, K. (2002). Tracing teaching use of technology in a laptop computer school: The interplay of teacher beliefs, social dynamics, and institutional culture. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 165–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wollman-Bonilla, J. E., & Werchadlo, B. (1999). Teacher and peer roles in scaffolding first ­graders’ responses to literature. The Reading Teacher, 52(6), 598–608.Google Scholar
  61. Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem-solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang, M., Lundeberg, M., McConnell, T. J., Koehler, M. J., & Eberhardt, J. (2010). Using ­questioning to facilitate discussion of science teaching problems in teacher professional ­development. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 4(1), 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations