## Abstract

Ceramics are usually thought of as electrical insulators, and indeed a great many of them are. Since the first uses of electricity, it has been necessary to have good electrical insulators to isolate current-carrying wires. The expansion of the electrical industry and, in particular, the use of the electric telegraph required enormous numbers of porcelain insulators for telegraph poles. From 1888, ceramics based on steatite began to be used for the same purpose. Today, ceramics are still used to provide insulating supports in the power lines that crisscross the country.

### Keywords

Zinc Combustion Vortex Titanium SiO2### GENERAL REFERENCES

- Cox PA (1987) The electronic structure and chemistry of solids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, A very good description of electronic propertiesGoogle Scholar
- Cyrot M, Pavuna D (1992) Introduction to superconductivity and high-Tc materials. World Scientific, Singapore, A clear introduction to the field. Treats the theoretical models at a level above that used here but within the range of most upper division MSE undergraduates and graduate studentsGoogle Scholar
- Duffy JA (1990) Bonding, energy levels and bands in inorganic solids. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow/Essex, Straightforward description of energy bands in solidsGoogle Scholar
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- Moulson AJ, Herbert JM (2003) Electroceramics, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester, An excellent account of the properties and applications of electroceramicsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Owens FJ, Poole CP Jr (1996) The new superconductors. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar

### SPECIFIC REFERENCES

- Bardeen J, Cooper LN, Schrieffer JR (1957) Theory of superconductivity. Phys Rev 108:1175, The BCS theory in all its technical detailCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Josephson BD (1962) Possible new effects in superconductive tunneling. Phys Lett 1:251–253, The eponymous junctionCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lu X, Xia G, Lemmon JP, Yang Z (2010) Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: status, challenges, and perspectives. J Power Sources 195:2431, A recent review of Na-S batteriesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nye JF (1985) Physical properties of crystals. Clarendon, Oxford, This is the standard reference for tensor representation. Chapter XI covers transport properties including electrical conductivity. The representation of σ by tensors is not necessary to understand the electrical behavior of materials. Its significance becomes clear when we want to specify certain properties of anisotropic single crystalsGoogle Scholar

### JOURNALS

*Journal of Electronic Materials*published by ASMGoogle Scholar*Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics*and*J Mater Sci*published by SpringerGoogle Scholar

*Solid State Ionics*. An international journal published by ElsevierGoogle Scholar

### JOURNALS DEVOTED TO SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

- The field of high-temperature superconductivity experienced unprecedented growth during the late seventies and eighties. The important aspects of much of that research have been compiled in several books. Even so the field is still producing new developments, although of a much more incremental nature, and journals are the best place to find out what is happening. The following journals deal exclusively with superconductivity.Google Scholar
*Physica C*published by ElsevierGoogle Scholar*Journal of Superconductivity*since January 2006 renamed as*Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism*published by SpringerGoogle Scholar*Superconductor Science and Technology*published by IOPGoogle Scholar

### OTHER JOURNALS REPORTING DEVELOPMENTS IN HTSC

- Many other journals have regular contributions in the area of HTSC. The major resources are listed below.Google Scholar
*Journal of Applied Physics*published by the American Institute of Physics (AIP)Google Scholar*Applied Physics Letters*also published by AIP. Consists of three page papers covering important developments in applied physics. A repository for many of the early papers covering processing of HTSC films.Google Scholar*Physical Review B*,*Physical Review Letters*,*Japanese J. of Applied Physics*,*J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics*.Google Scholar

### WWW

- www.eaglepicher.com/. EaglePicher Technologies, LLC is the company leading the ARPA-E Na-S battery program.

## Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013