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Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies in Mediating Clearance of Senescent Red Blood Cells

  • Hans U. Lutz
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 750)

Abstract

Germline-encoded naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) developed about 400 to 450 million years ago to provide specificity for clearance ofbody waste in animals with 3 germ layers. Such NAbs became a necessity to selectively clear aged red blood cells (RBC) surviving 60 to 120 d in higher vertebrates. IgG NAbs to senescent RBC are directed to the most abundant integral membrane protein, the anion-transport protein or band 3 protein, but only bind firmly upon its oligomerization, which facilitates bivalent binding. The main constituent of RBC, the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, is susceptible to oxidative damage. Oxidized hemoglobin forms hemichromes (a form of aggregates) that bind to the cytoplasmic portion of band 3 protein, induces their clustering on the cytoplasmic, as well as the exoplasmic side and thereby provides the prerequisites for the low affinity IgG anti-band 3 NAbs to bind bivalently. Bound anti-band 3 NAbs overcome their low numbers per RBC by stimulating complement amplification. An affinity for C3 outside the antigen binding region is responsible for a preferential formation of C3b2-IgG complexes from anti-band 3 NAbs. These complexes first bind oligomeric properdin, which enhances their affinity for factor B in assembling an alternative C3 convertase.

Keywords

Alternative Complement Pathway Bivalent Binding Senescent Erythrocyte Mediate Clearance Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans U. Lutz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyETH HönggerbergZurichSwitzerland

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