What is the Origin of Antiphospholipid Antibodies?

  • Rohan Willis
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
  • Silvia S. Pierangeli
  • Miri Blank
Chapter

Abstract

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are associated with the recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombosis that characterizes the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Although the ontogeny of these pathogenic antibodies has not been fully elucidated, there is evidence that indicates the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The evidence for the influence of HLA- and non-HLA-associated genes on the development of aPL and on the expression of disease has been garnered from animal genetic studies and human family and population studies. Several in vitro and in vivo animal studies have demonstrated the important role played by several environmental factors, in particular infectious agents, in the production of pathogenic aPL. Infectious agents can potentially induce autoimmune responses by molecular mimicry, selectively activating or destroying unique lymphocyte subsets, directing cytokine/chemokine release, or exposing cryptic autoantigens during cell necrosis and/or apoptosis. This chapter reviews the most up-to-date scientific evidence relating to the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the development of pathogenic aPL.

Keywords

Hepatitis Influenza Thrombocytopenia Propranolol Infliximab 

Notes

Acknowledgments

S.P. and M.B. are funded by a grant from the US-Israeli Binnational Reseach Foundation # 2009099; S.P. and R.W. are funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) # 1R01AR056745.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohan Willis
    • 1
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
    • 2
  • Silvia S. Pierangeli
    • 1
  • Miri Blank
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel HashomerRamat-GanIsrael

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