Color Consistency Reliability of LED Systems

Part of the Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series book series (SSLTA, volume 1)


LEDs are devices with inherent variability, which cause luminaire manufacturers a challenge to guarantee a color point, as the base component needs to be selected and carefully checked to ensure that the specification is reached. In this chapter, we propose a method to embrace this variability by using standard linear optimization algorithms and statistical methods, to reach a reliable color point specification, and we analyze limits, methods, and future developments on color specification.


Color Space Primary Stimulus Color Stimulus Color Match Color Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Guild J (1931) The colorimetric properties of the spectrum. Phil Trans Roy Soc (London) 230:149Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maxwell JC (1860) On the theory of compound colors, and the relations of the colors of the colors of the spectrum. Phil Trans Roy Soc (London) 150:57–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    CIE (1971) Colorimetry (official recommendations of the international commission on illumination), CIE publ. no. 15 (E-1.3.1), Bureau Central de la CIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    CIE (1972) Special metametrism index: change in illuminant, supplement no. 1 of CIE publ. no.15 (E-1.3.1) 1971, Bureau Central de la CIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    CIE (1978) Recommendation of uniform color spaces, color-difference equations, psychometrics color terms, supplement no. 2 of CIE publ. No. 15 (E-1.3.1) 1971, Bureau Central de la CIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    CIE (1987) International lighting vocabulary, 4th ed. CIE publ. no. 17.4, IEC (Publ. 50 (845))Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grassman H (1853) Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung, Poggendorf. Ann Phys 89:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Judd DB, Wyszecki G (1975) Color in business, science, and industry, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krantz DH (1975) Color measurement and color theory: I. Representation theorem for Grassman structures. J Math Psychol 12:283–303MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wright WD (1928–1929) A trichromatic colorimeter with spectral stimuli. Trans Opt Soc 29: 225Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wyszecki G, Stiles WS (1982) Color science: concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Judd DB (1935) A maxwell triangle yielding uniform chromaticity scales. JOSA 25(1):24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McAdam DL (1937) Projective transformations of I.C.I. color specifications. JOSA 27(8):294–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CIE (1960) Brussels session of the international commission on illumination. JOSA 50(1):89–90Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CIE (1986) Colorimetry, 2nd edn. CIE publ. no. 15.2 (E-1.3.1), Bureau Central CIE, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CIE (1975) Colors of light signals (official recommendations of the CIE), Publ. CIE no. 2.2 (TC-1.6) Bureau Central de la CIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Judd DB (1936) Estimation of chromaticity differences and nearest color temperature on the standard 1931 ICI colorimetric coordinate system. J Opt Soc Am 26:421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kelly KL (1963) Lines of constant correlated color temperature based on MacAdam’s (u, v) uniform chromaticity transformation of the CIE diagram. J Opt Soc Am 53:999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    MacAdam DL (1942) Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight. J Opt Soc Am 32:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ANSI (2008) Specification of the chromaticity of solid state lighting products, ANSI_NEMA_ANSLG C78[1].377Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Energy star program requirements for solid state lighting luminaires.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Murty KG (1983) Linear programming. Wiley, New YorkMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spiegel MR (1992) Theory and problems of probability and statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 112–113Google Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of statistical methods.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philips LightingMiribel CedexFrance
  2. 2.Philips LightingBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.CNRS Grenoble, Domaine UniversitaireSaint-Martin-d’HèresFrance

Personalised recommendations