Flow in Nonachievement Situations



Flow research began with the study of activities which often occurred in achievement situations. To this day, most flow research still deals with achievement in the areas of sports, academia, and work where the balance of challenge and skill is important to foster flow. This chapter extends traditional flow theory by introducing the concept of implicit and explicit motives as personal needs that explain how individuals can experience flow not only in achievement situations but also in social situations like affiliative or power situations. We propose that flow emerges from the interaction of motive-specific incentives in a situation, such as challenge and skill balance, and a person’s motives. Those motives are conducive to structuring situations which in turn foster flow. In this context, we also present studies dealing with flow in groups. We end this chapter by revealing some perspectives on future research on flow in nonachievement situations.


Transformational Leadership Flow Experience Power Motive Achievement Motive Implicit Motive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for International Student Assessment (ZIB), TUM School of EducationTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute of PsychologyUniversity of TrierTrierGermany

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