Neuromuscular Alterations of Upper Airway Muscles in Patients with OSAS: Radiological and Histopathological Findings

  • Panagis Drakatos
  • Dimosthenis Lykouras
  • Fotis Sampsonas
  • Kiriakos Karkoulias
  • Kostas SpiropoulosEmail author
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 65)


This article reviews studies of upper airway muscles in humans, observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). These studies include neuromuscular abnormalities of the upper airway muscles, along with changes of the upper airway lumen which is narrower in patients with OSAS than normal subjects. Several approaches have been made in the imaging of the upper airway using X-ray, CT, and MRI in order to characterize the severity of OSAS. Up to date results on histopathology of the muscles across with nervous lesions, are also reviewed.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Obstructive Sleep Apnoea 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagis Drakatos
    • 1
  • Dimosthenis Lykouras
    • 1
  • Fotis Sampsonas
    • 1
  • Kiriakos Karkoulias
    • 1
  • Kostas Spiropoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pulmonary DepartmentUniversity Hospital of PatrasRion, PatrasGreece

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