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Cellular Immunotolerance in the Transplant

  • Marcos Lóez-HoyosEmail author
  • David San Segundo
  • Manuel Arias
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 741)

Abstract

In humans, a state of operational tolerance has been observed in some recipients who anecdotally or experimentally abandoned their immunosuppressive treatment. Besides, advances in the understanding of the immune response and the continuous appearance of new biological molecules have boosted the growing interest in transferring the knowledge concerning immune tolerance from experimental models to clinical transplantation. Most of the strategies for inducing tolerance target the T-lymphocytes, especially T CD4+ since they play a central role in the regulation of the immune response. However, an effective tolerogenic treatment must also take into account the role of alloantibody producing B-lymphocytes, which have been shown to play a fundamental role in chronic rejection phenomena. There are multiple regulation and silencing mechanisms that operate both during lymphocyte ontogeny in the bone marrow and thymus (central tolerance) and in the periphery (peripheral tolerance). These regulatory mechanisms include the destruction of APCs by cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressive cytokines, and activation-induced cell death, among others. However, the mechanism that in recent years has come to be attributed the greatest role has been the active suppression of the response by T-lymphocytes themselves. These lymphocytes are named as regulatory T cells that include Tregs CD4+CD25+, Tr1 cells and Th3. The great therapeutic potential of regulatory lymphocyte populations for the control of allogeneic rejection is evident and several clinical trials in humans have been started to be implemented using populations of both Tregs and Tr1 cells for the prevention of allogeneic reactions.

Keywords

Treg Cell Secondary Lymphoid Organ Peripheral Tolerance Costimulatory Signal Central Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcos Lóez-Hoyos
    • 1
    Email author
  • David San Segundo
    • 2
  • Manuel Arias
    • 3
  1. 1.Immunology UnitMarqués de Valdecilla University HospitalSantander, CantabriaSpain
  2. 2.Immunology Research, Immunology Unit, IFIMAVMarqués de Valdecilla University HospitalSantander, CantabriaSpain
  3. 3.Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital and University of CantabriaSantander, CantabriaSpain

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