Advertisement

Biology of Stem Cells: The Role of Microenvironments

  • Agustín G. ZapataEmail author
  • David Alfaro
  • Javier García-Ceca
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 741)

Abstract

From the discovery of the first line of human embryonic stem cells, thousands of studies have been published concerning adult stem cells and their possible alleged therapeutic potential. However, very little real progress has been made in the application of cell therapy to patients. We can conclude that there remains a great deal for us to learn about the biology of stem cells, and especially, the mechanisms that regulate their differentiation and use under conditions of biosafety. In this chapter, we are going to review some of the mechanisms that seem to control the biology of stem cells, in particular the microenvironments, also called niches, where they house and which exert a strong influence over them. The regulation, survival, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells is ultimately determined by a combination of factors intrinsic to the stem cells themselves and extrinsic signals received from the microenvironment. A better understanding of the cellular components of microenvironments and their cellular and molecular interactions with the other components of the niche, including the stem cells themselves, will be key to make progress in this field.

Keywords

Stem Cell Bone Morphogenetic Protein Neural Stem Cell Stem Cell Niche Subventricular Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gonczy P. Mechanisms of asymmetric cell division: flies and worms pave the way. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2008; 9:355–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knoblich JA. Mechanisms of asymmetric stem cell division. Cell 2008; 132:583–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morrison SJ, Spradling AC. Stem cells and niches: mechanisms that promote stem cell maintenance throughout life.Cell 2008; 132:598–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fuller MT, Spradling AC. Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality. Science 2007; 316:402–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yamashita YM, Fuller MT, Jones DL. Signaling in stem cell niches: lessons from the Drosophila germline. J Cell Sci 2005; 118:665–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xie T, Li L. Stem cells and their niche: an inseparable relationship. Development 2007; 134:2001–2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taupin P. Adult neural stem cells, neurogenic niches, and cellular therapy. Stem Cell Rev 2006; 2:213–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lim DA, Huang YC, Alvarez-Buylla A. The adult neural stem cell niche: lessons for future neural cell replacement strategies. Neurosurg Clin N Am 2007; 18:81–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pardal R. Understanding our own neural stem cells in situ: can we benefit from them?. Front Biosci 2007; 12:3125–3132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shetty AK, Hattiangady B, Shetty GA. Stem/progenitor cell proliferation factors FGF-2, IGF-1, and VEGF exhibit early decline during the course of aging in the hippocampus: role of astrocytes. Glia 2005; 51: 173–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alexson TO, Hitoshi S, Coles BL et al. Notch signaling is required to maintain all neural stem cell Populations—irrespective of spatial or temporal niche. Dev Neurosci 2006; 28:34–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mizutani K, Yoon K, Dang L et al. Differential Notch signalling distinguishes neural stem cells from intermediate progenitors. Nature 2007; 449:351–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Castelo-Branco G, Arenas E. Function of Wnts in dopaminergic neuron development. Neurodegener Dis 2006; 3:5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lai K, Kaspar BK, Gage FH et al. Sonic hedgehog regulates adult neural progenitor proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Nat Neurosci 2003; 6:21–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Palma V, Lim DA, Dahmane N et al. Sonic hedgehog controls stem cell behavior in the postnatal and adult brain. Development 2005; 132:335–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li L, Xie T. Stem cell niche: structure and function. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2005; 21:605–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adams GB, Scadden DT. The hematopoietic stem cell in its place. Nat Immunol 2006; 7:333–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li Z, Li L. Understanding hematopoietic stem-cell microenvironments. Trends Biochem Sci 2006; 31: 589–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilson A, Trumpp A. Bone-marrow haematopoietic-stem-cell niches. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6:93–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaplan RN, Psaila B, Lyden D. Niche-to-niche migration of bone-marrow-derived cells. Trends Mol Med 2007; 13:72–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kiel MJ, Morrison SJ. Uncertainty in the niches that maintain haematopoietic stem cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2008; 8:290–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scadden DT. Circadian rhythms: stem cells traffic in time. Nature 2008; 452:416–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nagasawa T. New niches for B cells. Nat Immunol 2008; 9:345–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trumpp A, Essers M, Wilson A. Awakering dormant haematopoietic stem cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2010; 10:201–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chan Ch, Chen Ch-Ch, Luppen CA et al. Endochondral ossification is required for haematopoietic stem cell niche formation. Nature 2009; 457:490–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sacchetti B, Funar A, Michienzi S et al. Self-renewing osteoprogenitors in bone marrow sinusoids can organize a haematopoietic microenvironment. Cell 2007; 131:324–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zapata AG, Torroba M, Vicente A et al. The relevance of cell microenvironments for the appearance of lympho-haemopoietic tissues in primitive vertebrates. Histol Histopathol 1995; 10:761–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Katayama Y, Battista M, Kao WM et al. Signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate hematopoietic stem cell egress from bone marrow. Cell 2006; 124:407–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mendez-Ferrer S, Lucas D, Battista M et al. Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations. Nature 2008; 452:442–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chakroborty D, Chowdhury UR, Sarkar Ch et al. Dopamine regulates endothelial progenitor cell mobilization from mouse bone marrow in tumor vascularisation. J Clin Invest 2008; 118:1380–1389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Klassert TE, Patel SA, Rameshwar P. Tachykinins and neurokinin receptors in bone marrow functions: neural-hematopoietic link. J Recept, Ligand and Channel Res 2010; 3:51–61.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zapata AG. Stem cell populations in adult bone marrow: Phenotypes and biological relevance for production of somatic stem cell. In: Simón C, Pellicer A, eds. Stem Cells in Human Reproduction, 2nd edition. London: Informa Healthcare, 2009:177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morikawa S, Mabuchi Y, Kubota Y et al. Prospective identification, isolation, and systemic transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in murine bone marrow. J Exp Med 2009; 206:2483–2496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crisan M, Yap S, Casteilla L et al. A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs. Cell Stem Cell 2008; 3:301–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Naveiras O, Nardi V, Wenzel PL et al. Bone marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the haematopoietic microenvironment. Nature 2009; 460:259–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chitteti BR, Cheng YH, Poteat B et al. Impact of interactions of cellular components of the bone marrow microenvironment on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function. Blood 2010; 115:3239–3248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dzierzak E, Speck NA. Of lineage and legacy: the development of mammalian hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Immunol 2008; 9:129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carlson ME, Conboy IM. Loss of stem cell regenerative capacity within aged niches. Aging Cell 2007; 6:371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mayack SR, Shadrach JL, Kim FS et al. Systemic signals regulate ageing and rejuvenation of blood stem cell niches. Nature 2010; 483:495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Perry JM, Li L. Disrupting the stem cell niche: good seeds in bad soil. Cell 2007; 129:1045–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agustín G. Zapata
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Alfaro
    • 1
  • Javier García-Ceca
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell BiologyComplutense UniversityMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations