Part III Commentary: Socio-Cultural Contexts, Social Competence, and Engagement at School

Chapter

Abstract

A highly regarded motivation researcher, Kathryn Wentzel, shared her perspectives in a commentary on the chapters in Part III. Wentzel explored questions relating to student competence including its definition, relation to engagement, and the role of support from important contexts (home, school, peers, and community) in fostering competence and engagement. The chapter concludes with directions for future research.

Keywords

Parkin Clarification Weinstein 

References

  1. Assor, A. (2012). Allowing choice and nurturing an inner compass: Educational practices supporting students’ need for autonomy. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 421–439). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Bempechat, J., & Shernoff, D. J. (2012). Parental influences on achievement motivation and student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 315–342). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 6, pp. 187–250). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  6. Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15–45). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Chang, L. (2003). Variable effects of children’s aggression, social withdrawal, and prosocial leadership as functions of teacher beliefs and behaviors. Child Development, 74, 535–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins, W. A., & Repinski, D. J. (1994). Relationships during adolescence: Continuity and change in interpersonal perspective. In R. Montemayor, G. Adams, & T. Gullotta (Eds.), Personal relationships during adolescence (pp. 7–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Crosnoe, R., & Needham, B. (2004). Holism, contextual variability, and the study of friendships in adolescent development. Child Development, 75, 264–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context – An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Developmental Studies Center (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2007, from www.devstu.org/
  12. Dowson, M., & McInerney, D. M. (2003). What do students say about their motivational goals?: Towards a more complex and dynamic perspective on student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2012). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eccles, J. S., & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 139–186). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Evertson, C., & Weinstein, C. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management – Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenfield, P. M. (1997). You can’t take it with you – Why ability assessments don’t cross cultures. American Psychologist, 52, 1115–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hinde, R. A. (1997). Towards understanding relationships. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hipkins, R. (2012). The engaging nature of teaching for competency development. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 441–456). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Irvine, J. J. (1986). Teacher-student interactions: Effects of student race, sex, and grade level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Juvonen, J., Espoinoza, G., & Knifsend, C. (2012). The role of peer relationships in student academic and extracurricular engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 387–401). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Kuczynski, L., & Parkin, M. (2007). Agency and bidirectionality in socialization: Interactions, transactions and relational dialectics. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of social development (pp. 259–283). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. Laible, D., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Early socialization: A relationship perspective. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of social development (pp. 181–207). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  25. Lam, S., Wong, B. P. H., Yang, H., & Liu, Y. (2012). Understanding student engagement with a contextual model. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 403–419). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nichols, S., & Dawson, H. (2012). Assessment as a context for student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 457–477). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Pekrun, R. (2009). Emotions at school. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 575–604). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  29. Phinney, J. S., Kim-Jo, T., Osorio, S., & Vilhjalmsdottir, P. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-parent disagreements: Ethnic and developmental factors. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 8–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Piaget, J. (1983). Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 103–128). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Pianta, R. (2006). Classroom management and relationships between children and teachers: Implications for research and practice. In C. Evertson & C. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management – Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 685–710), Mahwah, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  32. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptual­izing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 365–386). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Raftery, J. N., Grolnick, W. S., & Flamm, E. S. (2012). Families as facilitators of student engagement: Toward a Home-School Partnership Model. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Hand­book of research on student engagement (pp. 343–364). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Reynolds, D. R. (1995). Rural education: Decentering the consolidation debate. In E. N. Castle (Ed.), The changing American countryside: Rural people and places (pp. 451–480). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  35. Roeser, R., Urdan, T., & Stephens, J. (2009). School as a context of student motivation and achievement. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 381–410). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  36. Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6, 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rumberger, R. W. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 583–625.Google Scholar
  38. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saft, E. W., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Teachers’ perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of child age, gender, and ethnicity of teachers and children. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sagi, A., Koren-Karie, N., Gini, M., Ziv, Y., & Joels, T. (2002). Shedding further light on the effects of various types and quality of early child care on infant-mother attachment relationship: The Haifa study of early child care. Child Development, 73, 1166–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sederberg, C. H. (1987). Economic role of school districts in rural communities. Research in Rural Education, 4, 125–130.Google Scholar
  42. Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. P. (2009). Engagement and disaffection as organizational constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 223–246). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  43. Slavin, R. (2011). Instruction based on cooperative learning. In R. Mayer & P. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning and instruction (pp. 344–360). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Steinberg, L., Brown, B. B., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1996). Beyond the classroom: why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  45. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Social competence at school: Relations between social responsibility and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research, 61, 1–24.Google Scholar
  47. Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wentzel, K. R. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social support and adjustment in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding students’ academic success. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 76–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wentzel, K. R. (2002). Are effective teachers like good parents? Interpersonal predictors of school adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 73, 287–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wentzel, K. R. (2003). School adjustment. In W. Reynolds & G. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of psychology, Vol. 7: Educational Psychology (pp. 235–258). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  53. Wentzel, K. R. (2004). Understanding classroom competence: The role of social-motivational and self-processes. In R. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 32, pp. 213–241). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  54. Wentzel, K. R. (2005). Peer relationships, motivation, and academic performance at school. In A. Elliot & C. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 279–296). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  55. Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Students’ relationships with teachers as motivational contexts. In K. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 301–322). Mahwah, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
  56. Wentzel, K. R., & Wigfield, A. (2009). Handbook of motivation at school. New York, NY: Taylor Francis.Google Scholar
  57. Wentzel, K. R., Baker, S. A., & Russell, S. (2009). Peer relationships and positive adjustment at school. In R. Gillman, S. Huebner, & M. Furlong (Eds.), Promoting wellness in children and youth: A handbook of positive psychology in the schools (pp. 229–244). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  58. Wentzel, K. R., & Looney, L. (2007). Socialization in school settings. In J. Grusec & P. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of social development (pp. 382–403). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  59. Wentzel, K., Russell, S., & Baker, S. (2011). Multiple goals of teachers, parents, and peers as predictors of young adolescents’ goals and affective functioning. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  60. Wentzel, K. R., Russell, S., Garza, E., & Merchant, B. (2011). Understanding the role of social supports in Latina/o adolescents’ school engagement and achievement. In N. Cabrera, F. Villarruel, & H. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Volume of Latina/o adolescent psychology and mental health: Vol. 2: Adolescent development. (pp.195–216). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  61. Wentzel, K. R., Baker, S. A., & Russell, S. L. (2012). Young adolescent’s perceptions of teachers’ and peers’ goals as predictors of social and academic goal pursuit. Applied Psychology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Quantitative MethodologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations