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Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Prevention in Low-Resource Countries

  • William Kofi Bosu
  • Terri L. Cornelison
  • Brandy M. Heckman-Stoddard
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the prevention of breast, ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers through a discussion of risk factors and active interventions for prevention. The priority options available to most low resource countries (LRCs) are to improve health lifestyles and to promote early diagnosis of symptomatic cancer. Avoiding alcohol misuse, smoking, adult weight gain, obesity, physical inactivity, shortened or absent duration of breastfeeding are amenable to individual or group actions. Enacting and enforcing national legislation to reduce lifetime exposure to risk factors and to introduce and expand HPV vaccination programs are needed. The benefits of chemoprevention studies may only be felt in LRCs when low cost options are proven effective in locally relevant resource-limited settings.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer Cervical Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Endometrial Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AHA

American Heart Association

AIs

Aromatase inhibitors

BCPT

Breast Cancer Prevention Trial

BHGI

Breast Global Health Initiative

BPM

Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy

BSE

Breast self-examination

BSO

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

CBE

Clinical breast examination

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CPM

Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DMPA

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate

ELF-EMF

Extremely low frequency-electromagnetic fields

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

ER

Estrogen receptor

HBOC

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

HNPCC

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

HPV

Human papilloma virus

HRT

Hormonal replacement therapy

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IBIS

International Breast Cancer Intervention Study

IOM

Institute of Medicine

LRCs

Low resource countries

MORE

Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation

NCD

Non-communicable disease

NSABP

National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project

OCs

Oral contraceptives

PARP

Poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase

PLCO

Prostate, lung, colorectal, and ­ovarian

RCTs

Randomized controlled trials

SERMs

Selective estrogen receptor modulators

STAR

Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene

US

United States

USPSTF

US Preventive Services Task Force

VTE

Venous thromboembolic events

WCRF

World Cancer Research Fund

WHI

Women’s Health initiative

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Kofi Bosu
    • 1
  • Terri L. Cornelison
    • 2
  • Brandy M. Heckman-Stoddard
    • 2
  1. 1.Disease Control and Prevention DepartmentGhana Health ServiceAccraGhana
  2. 2.Division of Cancer PreventionNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA

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