• Camillo Gentile
  • Nayef Alsindi
  • Ronald Raulefs
  • Carole Teolis


The integration of location services into our day-to-day life will grow significantly over the next decade as technologies mature and accuracy improves. The evolution of localization technologies has occurred independently for different wireless systems/standards. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was the first system to bring to light the benefits of accurate and reliable location information. Consequently, it has been incorporated into many services and applications. Currently, outdoor localization, thanks to GPS, has revolutionized navigation-based applications running on automotive GPS-enabled devices and smart phones. Applications range from location awareness, to point-by-point directions between destinations, to identifying the closest cinema or coffee shop. The basic technology behind the system is to measure the time elapsed for a signal to travel between a number of satellites orbiting the globe and a mobile device. Through a computational technique known as triangulation, the location of the mobile can be calculated from the tracked positions of the satellites and the times measured, each known as the Time-of-Arrival. The success of GPS has been due to the reliability, availability, and practical accuracy that the system can deliver; however, GPS lacks coverage indoors and in urban areas, in particular near buildings when the signal is blocked; even in the best of conditions, the accuracy is on the order of several meters.


Microwave Europe Coherence Lidar Sonar 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camillo Gentile
    • 1
  • Nayef Alsindi
    • 2
  • Ronald Raulefs
    • 3
  • Carole Teolis
    • 4
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Etisalat BT Innovation Center (EBTIC)Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR)Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates (UAE)
  3. 3.German Aerospace CenterWesslingGermany
  4. 4.TRX SystemsGreenbeltUSA

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