Unconstrained Learning: Principles for the Next Generation of Distance Education
Distance education has had a dramatic effect on learning in the last decade. While providers have experienced both academic and financial success, now is not the time to be complacent. Rather, we must begin to determine the direction of the next generation of distance education. In this chapter, three generations of distance education are outlined. The first is characterized by correspondence courses; the second is identified by early internet use; and the newly proposed third generation of distance education is characterized by an emerging technology-enabled learning space that brings to distance education a volume, depth, and breadth that eclipses early internet capacity. Ten principles for the next generation of distance education are offered, including a paradigm for learning experience design that not only incorporates sound instructional design practice but also encourages instructional designers to explore the inherent strengths of the technology-enabled space to design dynamic learning experiences.
KeywordsExplosive Hunt Harness Rote
- Blizzard. (2010). World of warcraft subscriber base reaches 12 million worldwide. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from http://us.blizzard.com/en-us/company/press/pressreleases.html?101007.
- Bomsdorf, B. (2005). Adaptation of learning spaces: Supporting ubiquitous learning in higher education. In Paper presented at the mobile computing and ambient intelligence: The challenge of multimedia, Dahgstuhl, Germany.Google Scholar
- Bonk, C. J., & King, K. S. (1998). Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse. New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Braimoh, D., & Lekoko, R. N. (2005). The need for policy framework in maintaining quality in open and distance education programmes in Southern Africa. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education—TOJDE, 6(4), 95–105.Google Scholar
- Carlson, N. (2011). Chart of the day: How many users does Twitter really have? Business Insider. Retrieved 31 Mar, 2011 from BusinessInsider.Com website: http://www.businessinsider.com/chart-of-the-day-how-many-users-does-twitter-really-have-2011-3
- Czikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- DeMarco, T., & Lister, T. (1987). Peopleware: Productive projects and teams (2nd ed.). New York: Dorset House.Google Scholar
- Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone. (First Touchstone Edition 1997 ed.).Google Scholar
- Google Earth. (2011). Google Earth Ancient Rome layer. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://earth.google.com/rome/.
- Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1985). Classroom conflict: Controversy versus debate in learning groups. American Educational Research Journal, 22(2), 237–256.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H. (2006). Modeling with technology: Mindtools for conceptual change (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H., Howland, J., Marra, R. M., & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Keller, J. M. (2009). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Marshall, S. (1997). Creating sustainable learning communities for the twenty-first century. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The organization of the future (pp. 177–188). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Morrison, G. R., & Lowther, D. L. (2010). Integrating computer technology into the classroom (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Preskill, H., & Torres, R. T. (2000). The learning dimension of evaluation use. New Directions for Evaluation 88(Winter 2000), 25–37.Google Scholar
- Project Tomorrow. (2010). Speak up survey data—2009. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/speakup_your_data.html.
- Reich, R. (1992). The work of nations. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
- Rummler, G. A. (2007). Serious performance consulting according to Rummler. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.Google Scholar
- Shedroff, N. (2001). Experience design: A manifesto for the creation of experiences. Indianapolis: New Riders.Google Scholar
- Shepard, M. (2011). Creating a culture of digital collaborative in online learning. In L. Moller & J. Huett (Eds.), The next generation of distance education: Unconstrained learning. New York: Springer Press.Google Scholar
- US Department of Education. (2005). Toward a new golden age in American education: How the Internet, the law, and today’s students are revolutionizing expectations. Washington: USDE.Google Scholar