The Evolution of Planetary Nebulae

  • Martin Griffiths
Part of the Astronomers' Observing Guides book series (OBSERVING)


The connection between stars and the gaseous envelopes we now call planetary nebulae was not evident to observers of the past. William Herschel’s 1784 insight was the first step on the road to a fuller understanding. Even today, astronomers are concerned with modeling the minutiae of planetaries, and although we have a far greater understanding than our historical counterparts, there are still many problems to be overcome in our quest for a final agreement between observation and theory.


Mass Star White Dwarf Stellar Wind Central Star Planetary Nebula 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Griffiths
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GlamorganGlyntafUK

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