Pulse-Chlorination®: Anti-Fouling Optimization in Seawater Cooling Systems

  • Iain A. Macdonald
  • Harry J. Polman
  • Henk A. Jenner
  • Shahid Q. B. M. Quyam


The marine environment provides many services to the human population of the world’s coastal zone. Specifically seawater is a naturally abundant resource that numerous industries can utilize as a cooling medium. For seawater to be efficiently and reliably utilized for cooling a biocide must be added to prevent marine growth. Typical industry practice along coastlines worldwide includes continuous chlorination of the seawater with occasional shock dosing. This practice is not based upon ecotoxicological data of targeted species but rather either a post-hoc observation of anti-fouling efficiency or an attempt to meet regulated discharge to sea residual biocide concentrations. Shock dosing is applied in the erroneous notion that it stops fouling species from adapting to continuous chlorination. These practices have been identified as major contributors to land-based pollution of the sea, especially within the Arabian Gulf. Therefore, opportunities exist for science-based decisions to optimize both site-specific biocide regimes and regulatory discharge limits.


Heat Exchanger Sodium Hypochlorite Pearl Oyster Residual Chlorine Chlorine Dosage 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iain A. Macdonald
    • 1
  • Harry J. Polman
    • 2
  • Henk A. Jenner
    • 3
  • Shahid Q. B. M. Quyam
    • 4
  1. 1.Imperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.KEMA Technical & Operational ServicesArnhemThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Aquator BVWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Qatargas Operating Company LimitedDohaQatar

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