Advertisement

The Evolution of Self During the Transition to Multicellularity

  • Aurora M. Nedelcu
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 738)

Abstract

The notion of ’ self’ is intrinsically linked to the concepts of identity and individuality. During evolutionary transitions in individuality—such as, for instance, during the origin of the first cell, the origin of the eukaryotic cell and the origin of multicellular individuals—new kinds of individuals emerged from the interaction of previously independent entities. The question discussed here is: How can new types of individuals with qualities that cannot be reduced to the properties of their parts be created at a higher level? This question is addressed in the context of the transition to multicellularity and using the volvocine green algae—a group of closely related unicellular and multicellular species with various degrees of physiological and reproductive unity—as a model system. In this chapter, we review our framework to addressing the evolution of individuality during the transition to multicellularity, focusing on the reorganization of general life-traits and cellular processes and the cooption of environmentally-induced responses.

Keywords

Somatic Cell Cyclic Electron Transport Unicellular Form Volvocine Alga Multicellular Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Santelices B. How many kinds of individual are there? Trends Ecol Evol 1999; 14:152–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Michod RE, Nedelcu AM. On the reorganization of fitness during evolutionary transitions in individuality. Int Comp Biol 2003; 43:64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Michod RE, Nedelcu AM. Cooperation and conflict during the unicellular-multicellular and prokaryotic-eukaryotic transitions. In: Moya A, Font E, eds. Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems. Oxford University Press, 2004:195–208.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nedelcu AM, Michod RE. Evolvability, modularity and individuality during the transition to multicellularity in volvocalean green algae. In: Schlosser G, Wagner G, eds. Modularity in Development and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004:466–89.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michod RE, Viossat Y, Solari CA et al. Life-history evolution and the origin of multicellularity. J Theor Bio 2006; 239:257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nedelcu AM. Environmentally induced responses co-opted for reproductive altruism. Biol Lett 2009; 5:805–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nedelcu AM, Michod RE. The evolutionary origin of an altruistic gene. Mol Biol Evol 2006; 23:1460–1464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bell G. The origin and early evolution of germ cells as illustrated by the Volvocales. In: Halvorson HO, Monroy A, eds. The Origin and Evolution of Sex. 1st ed. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc, 1985:221–56.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Larson A, Kirk M, Kirk DL. Molecular phylogeny of the volvocine flagellates. Mol Biol Evol 1992; 9:85–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herron MD, Michod RE. Evolution of complexity in the volvocine algae: Transitions in individuality through Darwin’s eye. Evolution 2008; 62:436–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koufopanou V. The evolution of soma in the Volvocales. Am Nat 1994; 143:907–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Margulis L. Symbiosis in cell evolution. San Francisco: Freeman, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirk DL. Volvox. Molecular genetic origins of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solari CA, Kessler JO, Michod RE. A hydrodynamics approach to the evolution of multicellularity: Flagellar motility and germ-soma differentiation in volvocalean green algae. Am Nat 2006; 167:537–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Solari CA, Ganguly S, Kessler JO et al. Multicellularity and the functional interdependence of motility and molecular transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:1353–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pommerville J, Kochert G. Changes in somatic cell structure during senescence of Volvox carteri. Eur J Cell Biol 1981; 24:236–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pommerville J, Kochert G. Effects of senescence on somatic cell physiology in the green alga Volvox carteri. Exp Cell Res 1982; 140:39–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kirk M, Stark K, Miller S et al. RegA, a Volvox gene that plays a central role in germ soma differentiation, encodes a novel regulatory protein. Development 1999; 126:639–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meissner M, Stark K, Cresnar B et al. Volvox germline-specific genes that are putative targets of RegA repression encode chloroplast proteins. Curr Genet 1999; 36:363–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carles CC, Choffnes-Inada D, Reville K et al. ULTRAPETALA1 encodes a SAND domain putative transcriptional regulator that controls shoot and floral meristem activity in Arabidopsis. Development 2005; 132:897–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Starr R. Control of differentiation in Volvox. Dev Biol Suppl 1970; 4:59–100.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirk DL, Baran GJ, Harper JF et al. Stage-specific hypermutability of the reg A locus of Volvox, a gene regulating the germ-soma dichotomy. Cell 1987; 18:11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duncan L, Nishii I, Harryman A et al. The VARL gene family and the evolutionary origins of the master cell-type regulatory gene, regA, in Volvox carteri. J Mol Evol 2007; 65:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kirk M, Ransick A, McRae SE et al. The relationship between cell size and cell fate in Volvox carteri. J Cell Biol 1993; 123:191–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kirk DL. Asymmetric division, cell size and germ-soma specification in Volvox. Semin Dev Biol 1995; 6:369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stark K, Kirk DL, Schmitt R. Two enhancers and one silencer located in the introns of regA control somatic cell differentiation in Volvox carteri. Genes Dev 2001; 15:1449–1460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bode HR. The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra: a stem cell system that arose early in evolution. J Cell Sci 1996; 109:1155–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Buss LW. The evolution of individuality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kirk DL. Germ cell specification in Volvox carteri. In: Marsh J, Goode J, eds. Germline Development Ciba Symposium 184. Chichester: Wiley, 1994:2–30.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Szathmáry E, Maynard Smith J. From replicators to reproducers: the major transitions leading to life. J Theor Biol 1997; 187:555–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grossman A. Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to its nutrient environment. Protist 2000; 151:201–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wykoff DD, Davies JP, Melis A et al. The regulation of photosynthetic electron transport during nutrient deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol 1998; 117:129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pfannschmidt T, Brautigam K, Wagner R et al. Potential regulation of gene expression in photosynthetic cells by redox and energy state: approaches towards better understanding. Ann Bot 2009; 103:599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davies JP, Yildiz FH, Grossman A. Sacl, a putative regulator that is critical for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation. EMBO J 1996; 15:2150–2159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eberhard S, Finazzi G, Wollman FA. The dynamics of photosynthesis. Ann Rev Gen 2008; 42:463–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van Breusegem F, Vranova E, Dat J et al. The role of active oxygen species in plant signal transduction. Plant Sci 2001; 161:405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mittler R. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Sci 2002; 7:405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Marnett LJ, Plastaras JP. Endogenous DNA damage and mutation. Trends Genet 2001; 17:214–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang CW, Moseley JL, Wykoff D et al. The LPB1 gene is important for acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to phosphorus and sulfur deprivation. Plant Physiol 2005; 138:319–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stark K, Schmitt R. Genetic control of germ-soma differentiation in Volvox carteri. Protist 2002; 153:99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reboud X, Bell G. Experimental evolution in Chamydomonas. III. Evolution of specialist and generalist types in environments that vary in space and time. Heredity 1997; 78:507–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wagner GP, Altenberg L. Complex adaptations and the evolution of evolvability. Evolution 1996; 50:967–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huskey RJ, Griffin BE. Genetic control of somatic cell differentiation in Volvox. Dev Biol 1979; 72:226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wright WE, Shay JW. Cellular senescence as a tumor-protection mechanism: the essential role of counting. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2001; 11:98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sage J, Mulligan GJ, Attardi LD et al. Targeted disruption of the three Rb-related genes leads to loss of G1 control and immortalization. Genes Dev 2000; 14:3037–3050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Umen JG, Goodenough UW. Control of cell division by a retinoblastoma protein homolog in Chlamydomonas. Genes Dev 2001; 15:1652–1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Toth AL, Robinson GE. Evo-devo and the evolution of social behavior. Trends Genet 2007; 23:334–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Smith CR, Toth AL, Suarez AV et al. Genetic and genomic analyses of the division of labour in insect societies. Nat Rev Genet 2008; 9:735–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aurora M. Nedelcu
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations