Advertisement

Introduction

Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)

Abstract

This exercise introduces the clinician to reactive attachment disorder (RAD), a childhood disorder involving a general failure of social relationship caused by early, grossly pathogenic care. In order to begin a study of such fundamental impediment to attachment in earliest life, we must as students of child psychiatry define what we mean by “attachment” and also must consider how we will prove a relationship to emotional neglect. A brief introduction to the process of normal, early childhood attachment is essential, before turning to the definition of abnormal attachment and to the topics of differential diagnosis and comorbidity.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Secure Attachment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ainsworth, M.D.S., and Bell, S.M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Developm, 41 (1): 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and Loss, Vol 1:Attachment. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Main, M. (1996). Introduction to the special section on attachment and psychopathology: overview of the field of attachment. J Cons Clinical Psychol, 64 (2): 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ainsworth, M.D.S., Belhar, M.S., Waters, E. and Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Main, M., and Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth strange situation. In: M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, and E.M. Cummings (Eds.) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 121–160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mahler, M.S., Pine, F., and Bergman, A. (1975). The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation.New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pine, F. (2004). Mahler’s concepts of “symbiosis” and separation-individuation: Revisited, re-evaluated, and refined. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 52 (2): 511–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Winnicott, D.W. (1960). The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shreeve, D.F. (1990). Pseudomaturity in the developmental line of object relations. Am J Psychother, 24(4): 536–551.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stern, D. (1985). The Interpersonal World of the Human Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stern, D.W., Hoffer, L., Haft, W., and Dore, J. (1987). L’accordage affectif; Le partage d’états émotionnels entre mère et enfant par écharges sur un mode croise. Annale S Médico Psychologiques, 145(3): 205–224.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tronick, E. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. Am Psychologist, 44(2): 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Emde, R.N., Kligmar, D.H., Reich, J.H., and Wade, T.D. (1978). Emotional expression in infancy: Initial studies of social signaling and an emergent model. In M. Lewis and L.A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The Development of Affect (pp. 125–148). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trevarthen, C. (1979). Communication and cooperation in early infancy: A description of primary intersubjectivity. In M.M. Bullowa (Ed.), Before Speech: The Beginning of Interpersonal Communication (pp. 321–349). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Trevarthen, C. (1980). The foundations of intersubjectivity: Development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants. In D. Olsen (Ed.), The Social Foundations of Language and Thought: Essays in Honor of J.S. Bruner (pp. 316–342). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Egeren, L.A.; Barratt, M.S., and Roach, M.A. (2001). Mother-infant responsiveness: Timing, mutual regulation, and interactional context. Developm Psychol, 37 (5): 684–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cassidy, J. (1994). Emotions regulation: Influences of attachment relationships. MonSoc Res Child Developm 59 (2–3): 228–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition (2000). New York: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solomon, J. and George, C. (1999). The measurement of attachment security in infancy and childhood. In J. Cassidy, and P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications(pp. 287–318). Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Minnis, H., Rabe-Hesketh, S., and Wolkind, S. (2001). Development of a brief, clinically relevant, scale for measuring attachment disorders. J Meth Psychiatric Res, 11(2): 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rutter, M., Anderson-Wood, L, Beckett, C., et al, and the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Team (1999). Quasi-autistic patterns following severe early global privation. J ChildPsychol Psychiatry, 40:537–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Franc, N., Maury, M., and Purper-Oaukil, D. (2009). Trouble déficit de l’attention/hyperactivité: quel lien avec l’attachement.L’Encéphale, 35(3): 256–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hall, S.E. and Geher, G. (2003). Behavioral and personality characteristics of children with Reactive Attachment Disorder. J Psychol, 137(2): 145–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Achenbach, T.M.,and Rescorla, L.A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Burlington, Vermont: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2005).Practice Parameter: Reactive Attachment Disorder.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 44(11): 1206–1219.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chaffin, M. et al (2006). Report of the APSAC Task Force on Attachment Therapy, Reactive Attachment Disorder, and Attachment Problems. Child Maltreat, 11(1): 76–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Achenbach, T.M., and Rescorla, L.A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms and Profiles. Burlington, Vermont: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Carilion ClinicRoanokeUSA

Personalised recommendations