• Kathleen Malley-Morrison
  • Andrea Mercurio
  • Andrew Potter
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)


Across the globe, acts of violence are committed on a daily basis, often with shocking disregard for human life. As described in the opening chapter of this handbook, almost every area of the world has witnessed acts of aggression from forces from within or beyond their borders during the twenty-first century. In 2009, according to the Ploughshares Armed Conflict Reports 2010 Summary, “Africa and Asia continue to be the regions of the world most affected by war, hosting 11 armed conflicts each, or over three-quarters of the world’s total.” In the Middle East and Africa, there are many examples of governments at war either with occupying/invading forces or with their own people. In 2011, as part of considerable upheaval in the Middle East and North Africa, totalitarian governments in Tunisia and Egypt were overthrown with remarkably restricted violence. When more severe violence broke out between the Gaddafi government and protestors in Libya, NATO became involved to protect civilians, and the Syrian government reportedly lashed out at protests against its ruling regime, killing dozens of its own people ( A similar situation unfolded in Bahrain, with government forces allegedly using tear gas and other methods of violence to quell dissenting protestors (CNN Wire Staff 2011).


Middle East National Security Armed Conflict Moral Disengagement Military Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen Malley-Morrison
    • 1
  • Andrea Mercurio
    • 2
  • Andrew Potter
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of School PsychologyUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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