Opioid Adverse Effects and Opioid-Induced Hypogonadism



Opioids are potent pain relievers and have been used as analgesics for centuries. Unfortunately, adverse effects related to opioids may result in discontinuation of these medications and other potentially worse outcomes. An understanding of the major adverse effects of opioids as well as knowledge of how to evaluate and manage these adverse effects will improve a physician’s ability to successfully treat patients requiring opioids. In this chapter, we will review opioid-related nausea and vomiting, constipation, neuroendocrine effects, immune effects, respiratory depression, central nervous system effects, and pruritis.


Luteinizing Hormone Opioid Receptor Respiratory Depression Opioid Therapy Central Nervous System Effect 
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Copyright information

© American Academy of Pain Medicine 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation & Pain SpecialistsPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyPennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA

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