This chapter describes the indications and operative techniques for parathyroidectomy. Preoperative preparation and postoperative management are discussed for primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Surgical anatomy of the parathyroid glands and its surrounding structures is reviewed. Operative technique, pitfalls, and complications are discussed for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, four-gland exploration, and subtotal and reoperative parathyroidectomy. The techniques of parathyroid biopsy and reimplantation are detailed. Possible complications such as bleeding, hypoparathyroidism, and their management are discussed.
KeywordsFatigue Phosphorus Lithium Creatinine Adenoma
- National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. 2009. http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/guidelines_bone/index.htm.