Current Status of Practical Applications: Probiotics in Dairy Cattle

  • Todd R. Callaway
  • Tom S. Edrington
  • T. L. Poole
  • D. J. Nisbet


The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental effects. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to enhance milk production and the feed efficiency. The individual efficacy of probiotics in dairy cattle is due to specific microbial ecological factors within the gut of the food animal and its native microflora that alter the competitive pressures of the gut. This chapter explores the ecology behind the efficacy of probiotic products against food-borne pathogens that inhabit food animals.


Milk Yield Dairy Cattle Feed Efficiency Aspergillus Oryzae Fermentation Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aleman, M.M., D.R. Stein, D.T. Allen, E. Perry, K.V. Lehloenya, T.G. Rehberger, K.J. Mertz, D.A. Jones, and L.J. Spicer. 2007. Effects of feeding two levels of propionibacteria to dairy cows on plasma hormones and metabolites. Journal of Dairy Research 74: 146–153.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Qumber, M., and J.R. Tagg. 2006. Commensal bacilli inhibitory to mastitis pathogens isolated from the udder microbiota of healthy cows. Journal of Applied Microbiology 101: 1152–1160.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, T.M., J.M. Bosilevac, X. Nou, S.D. Shackleford, T.L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 2007. Comparison of the molecular genotypes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the hides of beef cattle in different regions of North America. Journal of Food Protection 70: 1622–1626.Google Scholar
  4. Barroga, A.J., R.C.D. Salas, E.A. Martin, W.G. Besa, and C.A.D.C. Santos. 2007. Efficacy of probiotics, enzymes and dried porcine solubles in swine. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 90: 71–74.Google Scholar
  5. Beecher, C., M. Daly, D.P. Berry, K. Klostermann, J. Flynn, W. Meaney, C. Hill, T.V. McCarthy, R.P. Ross, and L. Giblin. 2009. Administration of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis DPC 3147 into the bovine mammary gland stimulates the local host immune response, particularly IL-1 and IL-8 gene expression. Journal of Dairy Research 76: 340–348.Google Scholar
  6. Bergen, W.G., and D.B. Bates. 1984. Ionophores: Their effect on production efficiency and mode of action. Journal of Animal Science 58: 1465–1483.Google Scholar
  7. Boadi, D., C. Benchaar, J. Chiquette, and D. Masse. 2004. Mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emissions from dairy cows: Update review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84: 319–335.Google Scholar
  8. Boga, M., and M. Gorgulu. 2007. Effects of probiotics based on Lactobacillus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. plus yeast (Sacchoromyces cerevisiae) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 41: 305–308.Google Scholar
  9. Branner, G.R., and D.A. Roth-Maier. 2006. Influence of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on the intestinal availability of different B-vitamins. Archives of Animal Nutrition 60: 191–204.Google Scholar
  10. Brashears, M.M., M.L. Galyean, G.H. Loneragan, J.E. Mann, and K. Killinger-Mann. 2003a. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and performance by beef feedlot cattle given Lactobacillus direct-fed microbials. Journal of Food Protection 66: 748–754.Google Scholar
  11. Brashears, M.M., D. Jaroni, and J. Trimble. 2003b. Isolation, selection, and characterization of lactic acid bacteria for a competitive exclusion product to reduce shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. Journal of Food Protection 66: 355–363.Google Scholar
  12. Callaway, T.R., and S.A. Martin. 2006. Use of fungi and organic acids in production animal diets. Feedstuffs direct-fed microbial, enzyme and forage additive compendium, 8th ed, 25–33. Minneton: Miller Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Callaway, T.R., T.S. Edrington, A.D. Brabban, J.E. Keen, R.C. Anderson, M.L. Rossman, M.J. Engler, K.J. Genovese, B.L. Gwartney, J.O. Reagan, T.L. Poole, R.B. Harvey, E.M. Kutter, and D.J. Nisbet. 2006. Fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, Listeria, and bacteriophage infecting E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle in the southern plains region of the United States. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 3: 234–244.Google Scholar
  14. Chiquette, J. 2009. Evaluation of the protective effect of probiotics fed to dairy cows during a subacute ruminal acidosis challenge. Animal Feed Science and Technology 153: 278–291.Google Scholar
  15. Chiquette, J., G. Talbot, F. Markwell, N. Nili, and R.J. Forster. 2007. Repeated ruminal dosing of Ruminococcus flavefaciens NJ along with a probiotic mixture in forage or concentrate-fed dairy cows: Effect on ruminai fermentation, cellulolytic populations and in sacco digestibility. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 87: 237–249.Google Scholar
  16. Chiquette, J., M.J. Allison, and M.A. Rasmussen. 2008. Prevotella bryantii 25A used as a probiotic in early-lactation dairy cows: Effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Journal of Dairy Science 91: 3536–3543.Google Scholar
  17. Click, R.E., and C.L. van Kampen. 2009. Short communication: Progression of Johne’s disease curtailed by a probiotic. Journal of Dairy Science 92: 4846–4851.Google Scholar
  18. Coburn, B., G.A. Grassl, and B.B. Finlay. 2007. Salmonella, the host and disease: A brief review. Immunology and Cell Biology 85: 112–118.Google Scholar
  19. Collins, D.M., and G.R. Gibson. 1999. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: Approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 1052S–1057S.Google Scholar
  20. Crispió, F., M. Alonso-Gómez, C. O’Loughlin, K. Klostermann, J. Flynn, S. Arkins, W. Meaney, R. Paul Ross, and C. Hill. 2008. Intramammary infusion of a live culture for treatment of bovine mastitis: Effect of live lactococci on the mammary immune response. Journal of Dairy Research 75: 374–384.Google Scholar
  21. Crittenden, R.G. 1999. Prebiotics. In Probiotics: A critical review, ed. G.W. Tannock, 141–156. Wymondham: UK, Horizon Scientific Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dawson, K.A. 1990. Designing the yeast culture of tomorrow – Mode of action of yeast culture for ruminants and non-ruminnts. Biotechnology in the Feed Industry 5: 59–75.Google Scholar
  23. Dawson, K.A. 1992. Current and future role of Yeast culture in animal production: A review of research over last six years. Animal Science 8: 1–23.Google Scholar
  24. Desnoyers, M., S. Giger-Reverdin, G. Bertin, C. Duvaux-Ponter, and D. Sauvant. 2009. Meta-analysis of the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on ruminal parameters and milk production of ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science 92: 1620–1632.Google Scholar
  25. DiBaise, J.K., H. Zhang, M.D. Crowell, R. Krajmalnik-Brown, G.A. Decker, and B.E. Rittmann. 2008. Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with obesity. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83: 460–469.Google Scholar
  26. Doyle, M.P., and M.C. Erickson. 2006. Reducing the carriage of food-borne pathogens in livestock and poultry. Poultry Science 85: 960–973.Google Scholar
  27. Duncker, S.C., A. Lorentz, B. Schroeder, G. Breves, and S.C. Bischoff. 2006. Effect of orally administered probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 on intestinal mucosal immune cells of healthy young pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 111: 239–250.Google Scholar
  28. Elam, N.A., J.F. Gleghorn, J.D. Rivera, M.L. Galyean, P.J. Defoor, M.M. Brashears, and S.M. Younts-Dahl. 2003. Effects of live cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus (strains NP45 and NP51) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii on performance, carcass, and intestinal characteristics, and Escherichia coli strain O157 shedding of finishing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 81: 2686–2698.Google Scholar
  29. Enemark, J.M.D. 2008. The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. The Veterinary Journal 176: 32–43.Google Scholar
  30. Federic, F., and A. Sokol. 1973. Effect of peroral application of a colicinogenic strain of Escherichia coli on the incidence of different categories of plasmids in Escherichia coli isolated from weaned piglets fed on flavomycin. Folia Microbiologica 18: 65.Google Scholar
  31. Finegold, S.M. 2008. Therapy and epidemiology of autism-clostridial spores as key elements. Medical Hypotheses 70: 508–511.Google Scholar
  32. Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66: 365–378.Google Scholar
  33. Gomes, A.M.P., and F.X. Malcata. 1999. Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends in Food Science and Technology 10: 139–157.Google Scholar
  34. Gomez-Alarcon, R.A., C. Dudas, and J.T. Huber. 1990. Influence of cultures of Aspergillus oryzae on rumen and total tract digestibility of dietary components. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 703–710.Google Scholar
  35. Gomez-Alarcon, R.A., J.T. Huber, G.E. Higginbotham, F. Wiersma, D. Ammon, and B. Taylor. 1991. Influence of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the milk yields, eating patterns, and body temperatures of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 1733–1740.Google Scholar
  36. Harvey, R.B., R.E. Droleskey, C.L. Sheffield, T.S. Edrington, T.R. Callaway, R.C. Anderson, D.L.J. Drinnon, R.L. Ziprin, H.M. Scott, and D.J. Nisbet. 2004. Campylobacter prevalence in lactating dairy cows in the United States. Journal of Food Protection 67: 1476–1479.Google Scholar
  37. Hungate, R.E. 1966. The rumen and its microbes. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  38. Ibekwe, A.M., P.M. Watt, C.M. Grieve, V.K. Sharma, and S.R. Lyons. 2002. Multiplex fluorogenic real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy wastewater wetlands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 4853–4862.Google Scholar
  39. Isik, M., F. Ekimler, N. Ozen, and M.Z. Firat. 2004. Effects of using probiotics on the growth performance and health of dairy calves. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 28: 63–69.Google Scholar
  40. Jayne-Williams, D.J., and R. Fuller. 1971. The influence of the intestinal microflora on nutrition. In Physiology and biochemistry of the domestic food, ed. D.J. Bell and B.M. Freeman, 74–92. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, K.A., and D.E. Johnson. 1995. Methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Science 73: 2483–2494.Google Scholar
  42. Jouany, J.P. 2006. Optimizing rumen functions in the close-up transition period and early lactation to drive dry matter intake and energy balance in cows. Animal Reproduction Science 96: 250–264.Google Scholar
  43. Kaufhold, J., H.M. Hammon, and J.W. Blum. 2000. Fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation: Effects on metabolic, endocrine and hematological traits in veal calves. Journal of Veterinary Medicine A: Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine 47: 17–29.Google Scholar
  44. Keen, J., and R. Elder. 2000. Commercial probiotics are not effective for short-term control of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in beef cattle. Kyoto, Japan, 4th International Symposium Works. Shiga Toxin (Verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli Infect., 92 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  45. Koenen, M.E., J. Kramer, R. Van Der Hulst, L. Heres, S.H.M. Jeurissen, and W.J.A. Boersma. 2004. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer- and meat-type chickens. British Poultry Science 45: 355–366.Google Scholar
  46. Krehbiel, C.R., S.R. Rust, G. Zhang, and S.E. Gilliland. 2003. Bacterial direct-fed microbials in ruminant diets: Performance response and mode of action. Journal of Animal Science 81: E120–132.Google Scholar
  47. Kung, L., and A.O. Hession. 1995. Preventing in vitro lactate accumulation in ruminal fermentations by inoculation with Megasphaera elsdenii. Journal of Animal Science 73: 250–256.Google Scholar
  48. Kung, L., E.M. Kreck, R.S. Tung, A.O. Hession, A.C. Sheperd, M.A. Cohen, H.E. Swain, and J.A.Z. Leedle. 1997. Effects of a live yeast culture and enzymes on in vitro ruminal fermentation and milk production of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 2045–2051.Google Scholar
  49. Lehloenya, K.V., D.R. Stein, D.T. Allen, G.E. Selk, D.A. Jones, M.M. Aleman, T.G. Rehberger, K.J. Mertz, and L.J. Spicer. 2008. Effects of feeding yeast and propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield and components, and reproduction. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 92: 190–202.Google Scholar
  50. LeJeune, J.T., M.D. Kauffman, M.D. Amstutz, and L.A. Ward. 2006. Limited effects of a commercial direct-fed microbial on weaning pig performance and gastrointestinal microbiology. Journal of Swine Health and Production 14: 247–252.Google Scholar
  51. Lema, M., L. Williams, and D.R. Rao. 2001. Reduction of fecal shedding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lambs by feeding microbial feed supplement. Small Ruminant Research 39: 31–39.Google Scholar
  52. Ley, R.E., P.J. Turnbaugh, S. Klein, and J.I. Gordon. 2006. Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444: 1022–1023.Google Scholar
  53. Lila, Z.A., N. Mohammed, T. Yasui, Y. Kurokawa, S. Kanda, and H. Itabashi. 2004. Effects of a twin strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells on mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation in vitro. Journal of Animal Science 82: 1847–1854.Google Scholar
  54. Linn, J.G., and J. Salfer. 2006. Feed efficiency. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Extension Service.Google Scholar
  55. Lock, A.L., and D.E. Bauman. 2004. Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 39: 1197–1206.Google Scholar
  56. Losinger, W.C., and A.J. Heinrichs. 1996. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 79: 506–514.Google Scholar
  57. Martin, S.A., M.N. Streeter, D.J. Nisbet, G.M. Hill, and S.E. Williams. 1999. Effects of dl-malate on ruminal metabolism and performance of cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Journal of Animal Science 77: 1008–1015.Google Scholar
  58. Midilli, M., M. Alp, N. Kocabagli, O.H. Muglali, N. Turan, H. Yilmaz, and S. Cakir. 2008. Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentration of broilers. South African Journal of Animal Sciences 38: 21–27.Google Scholar
  59. Moxley, R.A., D. Smith, T.J. Klopfenstein, G. Erickson, J. Folmer, C. Macken, S. Hinkley, A. Potter, and B. Finlay. 2003. Vaccination and feeding a competitive exclusion product as intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. In Edinburgh, UK, Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections, 23 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  60. Nader-MacÃas, M.E.F., M.C. Otero, M.C. Espeche, and N.C. Maldonado. 2008. Advances in the design of probiotic products for the prevention of major diseases in dairy cattle. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 35: 1387–1395.Google Scholar
  61. Nagaraja, T.G., and E.C. Titgemeyer. 2007. Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: The current microbiological and nutritional outlook. Journal of Dairy Science 90(Suppl. 1): E17–38.Google Scholar
  62. Nisbet, D.J., and S.A. Martin. 1990. Effect of dicarboxylic acids and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on lactate uptake by the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 3515–3518.Google Scholar
  63. Nocek, J.E., and W.P. Kautz. 2006. Direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal digestion, health, and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 260–266.Google Scholar
  64. Nocek, J.E., W.P. Kautz, J.A.Z. Leedle, and E. Block. 2003. Direct-fed microbial supplementation on the performance of dairy cattle during the transition period. Journal of Dairy Science 86: 331–335.Google Scholar
  65. Oellermann, S.O., M.J. Arambel, B.A. Kent, and J.L. Walters. 1990. Effect of graded amounts of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on ruminal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 2413–2416.Google Scholar
  66. Oetzel, G.R., K.M. Emery, W.P. Kautz, and J.E. Nocek. 2007. Direct-fed microbial supplementation and health and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle: A field trial. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 2058–2068.Google Scholar
  67. Oliver, S.P., B.M. Jayarao, and R.A. Almeida. 2005. Food-borne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: Food safety and public health implications. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2: 115–129.Google Scholar
  68. Oliver, S.P., D.A. Patel, T.R. Callaway, and M.E. Torrence. 2008. ASAS centennial paper: Developments and future outlook for preharvest food safety. Journal of Animal Science 87: 419–437.Google Scholar
  69. Otero, M.C., and M.E. Nader-MacÃas. 2006. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by H2O2-producing Lactobacillus gasseri isolated from the vaginal tract of cattle. Animal Reproduction Science 96: 35–46.Google Scholar
  70. Otero, M.C., L. Morelli, and M.E. Nader-Macias. 2006. Probiotic properties of vaginal lactic acid bacteria to prevent metritis in cattle. Letters in Applied Microbiology 43: 91–97.Google Scholar
  71. Owens, F.N., D.S. Secrist, W.J. Hill, and D.R. Gill. 1998. Acidosis in cattle: A review. Journal of Animal Science 76: 275–286.Google Scholar
  72. Porter, J., K. Mobbs, C.A. Hart, J.R. Saunders, R.W. Pickup, and C. Edwards. 1997. Detection, distribution, and probable fate of Escherichia coli O157 from asymptomatic cattle on a dairy farm. Journal of Applied Microbiology 83: 297–306.Google Scholar
  73. Raeth-Knight, M.L., J.G. Linn, and H.G. Jung. 2007. Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility, and rumen characteristics of holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 1802–1809.Google Scholar
  74. Ransom, J.R., K.E. Belk, J.N. Sofos, J.A. Scanga, M.L. Rossman, G.C. Smith, and J.D. Tatum. 2003. Investigation of on-farm management practices as pre-harvest beef microbiological interventions. Centennial: National Cattlemen’s Beef Association Research Fact Sheet.Google Scholar
  75. Reid, C.A., A. Small, S.M. Avery, and S. Buncic. 2002. Presence of food-borne pathogens on cattle hides. Food Control 13: 411–415.Google Scholar
  76. Ross, R.P., S. Mills, C. Hill, G.F. Fitzgerald, and C. Stanton. 2010. Specific metabolite production by gut microbiota as a basis for probiotic function. International Dairy Journal 20: 269–276.Google Scholar
  77. Russell, J.B., and T. Hino. 1984. Regulation of lactate production in Streptococcus bovis: A spiraling effect that contributes to rumen acidosis. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 1712–1721.Google Scholar
  78. Savelkoul, H., and E. Tijhaar. 2007. Animal health and immunomodulation of the natural defense system. Dierg. immunomod. natuurl. weer. 132: 764–766.Google Scholar
  79. Schamberger, G.P., and F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2002. Selection of recently isolated colicinogenic Escherichia coli strains inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Food Protection 65: 1381–1387.Google Scholar
  80. Scharff, R.L. 2010. Health-related costs from food-borne illness in the United States. Washington: Georgetown University.Google Scholar
  81. Schierack, P., L.H. Wieler, D. Taras, V. Herwig, B. Tachu, A. Hlinak, M.F.G. Schmidt, and L. Scharek. 2007. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 118: 1–11.Google Scholar
  82. Schrezenmeir, J., and M. De Vrese. 2001. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics-approaching a definition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73(Suppl.): 354s–361s.Google Scholar
  83. Sievert, S.J., and R.D. Shaver. 1993. Carbohydrate and Aspergillus oryzae effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76: 245–254.Google Scholar
  84. Slyter, L.L. 1976. Influence of acidosis on rumen function. Journal of Animal Science 43: 910–929.Google Scholar
  85. Stefan, G. 1997. Food safety issues affecting the dairy beef industry. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 3458–3462.Google Scholar
  86. Stein, D.R., D.T. Allen, E.B. Perry, J.C. Bruner, K.W. Gates, T.G. Rehberger, K. Mertz, D. Jones, and L.J. Spicer. 2006. Effects of feeding propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and reproduction. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 111–125.Google Scholar
  87. Stephens, T.P., G.H. Loneragan, L.M. Chichester, and M.M. Brashears. 2007a. Prevalence and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in steers receiving various strains of Lactobacillus-based direct-fed microbials. Journal of Food Protection 70: 1252–1255.Google Scholar
  88. Stephens, T.P., G.H. Loneragan, E. Karunasena, and M.M. Brashears. 2007b. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in feces and on hides of feedlot cattle using various doses of a direct-fed microbial. Journal of Food Protection 70: 2386–2391.Google Scholar
  89. Stewart, C.S., and M.P. Bryant. 1988. The rumen microbial ecosystem. London: Elsevier Science Publishers, Ltd.Google Scholar
  90. Tabe, E.S., J. Oloya, D.K. Doetkott, M.L. Bauer, P.S. Gibbs, and M.L. Khaitsa. 2008. Comparative effect of direct-fed microbials on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in naturally infected feedlot cattle. Journal of Food Protection 71: 539–544.Google Scholar
  91. Tejido, M.L., M.J. Ranilla, R. García-Martinez, and M.D. Carro. 2005. In vitro microbial growth and rumen fermentation of different substrates as affected by the addition of disodium malate. Journal of Animal Science 81: 31–38.Google Scholar
  92. USDA/APHIS. 2003a. Salmonella and Campylobacter on U. S. dairy operations. USDA/APHIS-VS Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health.Google Scholar
  93. USDA/APHIS. 2003b. Salmonella and Listeria in bulk tank milk on U.S. dairies. USDA/APHIS-VS Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health.Google Scholar
  94. USDA-ERS. 2001. ERS estimates food-borne disease costs at $6.9 billion per year. Economic Research Service-United States Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  95. USDA-ERS. 2009. Farm milk production. Economic Research Service, USDA.Google Scholar
  96. Vosough Ahmadi, B., K. Frankena, J. Turner, A.G.J. Velthuis, H. Hogeveen, and R.B.M. Huirne. 2007. Effectiveness of simulated interventions in reducing the estimated prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in lactating cows in dairy herds. Veterinary Research 38: 755–771.Google Scholar
  97. Walsh, M.C., G.E. Gardiner, O.M. Hart, P.G. Lawlor, M. Daly, B. Lynch, B.T. Richert, S. Radcliffe, L. Giblin, C. Hill, G.F. Fitzgerald, C. Stanton, and P. Ross. 2008. Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 64: 317–327.Google Scholar
  98. Weiss, W.P., D.J. Wyatt, and T.R. McKelvey. 2008. Effect of feeding propionibacteria on milk production by early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 91: 646–652.Google Scholar
  99. Wells, J.E., D.O. Krause, T.R. Callaway, and J.B. Russell. 1997. A bacteriocin-mediated antagonism by ruminal lactobacilli against Streptococcus bovis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 22: 237–243.Google Scholar
  100. Wiedmeirer, R.D., M.J. Arambel, and J.L. Walters. 1987. Effect of yeast culture and Aspergillus oryzae fermantation extract on ruminal characteristics and nutrient digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science 70: 2063–2068.Google Scholar
  101. Wiemann, M. 2003. How do probiotic feed additives work? International Poultry Production 11: 7–9.Google Scholar
  102. Williams, P.E.V., C.A.G. Tait, G.M. Innes, and C.J. Newbold. 1991. Effects of the inclusion of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium) in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and forage degradation and fermentation patterns in the rumen of steers. Journal of Animal Science 69: 3016–3026.Google Scholar
  103. Windschitl, P.M. 1992. Effects of probiotic supplementation of hull-less barley- and corn-based diets on bacterial fermentation in continuous culture of ruminal contents. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72: 265–272.Google Scholar
  104. Yasuda, K., S. Hashikawa, H. Sakamoto, Y. Tomita, S. Shibata, and T. Fukata. 2007. A new synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and dextran improves milk production in Holstein dairy cows. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 69: 205–208.Google Scholar
  105. Yoon, I.K., and M.D. Stern. 1996. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae cultures on ruminal fermentation in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 79: 411–417.Google Scholar
  106. Younts-Dahl, S.M., M.L. Galyean, G.H. Loneragan, N.A. Elam, and M.M. Brashears. 2004. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus- and Propionibacterium-based direct-fed microbials and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in beef feedlot cattle and on hides at harvest. Journal of Food Protection 67: 889–893.Google Scholar
  107. Yu, P., J.T. Huber, C.B. Theurer, K.H. Chen, L.G. Nussio, and Z. Wu. 1997. Effect of steam-flaked or steam-rolled corn with or without Aspergillus oryzae in the diet on performance of dairy cows fed during hot weather. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 3293–3297.Google Scholar
  108. Zhang, W., M.S.P. Azevedo, A.M. Gonzalez, L.J. Saif, T. Van Nguyen, K. Wen, A.E. Yousef, and L. Yuan. 2008. Influence of probiotic Lactobacilli colonization on neonatal B cell responses in a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 122: 175–181.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd R. Callaway
    • 1
  • Tom S. Edrington
    • 1
  • T. L. Poole
    • 1
  • D. J. Nisbet
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA/ARS, Food and Feed Safety Research UnitCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations