Biomedical and Biochemical Effects



Potential toxic foreign compounds or metabolites are capable of interacting with an endogenous target, triggering perturbation in cellular functions, and mediating a biochemical or biomedical effect. The cells initially respond to such perturbation with repair and adaptive mechanisms. When the induced perturbation exceeds the repair and adaptive capacity, toxic effects occur. In most cases, foreign compounds are absorbed and distributed to target organs, where they exert harmful effects. Liver and kidneys are frequent target organs of toxicity. The exhibition of foreign compound toxicity including biomedical and biochemical effects may occur under the following circumstances.


Reactive Oxygen Species Cardiac Muscle Cell Nickel Compound CYP450 Isozyme Oxidative Protein Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arispe N, Diaz JC, Simakova O et al (2008) Heart failure drug digitoxin induces calcium uptake into cells by forming transmembrane calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2610–2615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaikie FH, Brown SE, Samuelsson LM et al (2006) Targeting dinitrophenol to mitochondria: limitations to the development of a self-limiting mitochondrial protonophore. Biosci Rep 26:231–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brzezinski MR, Boutelet-Bochan H, Person RE et al (1999) Catalytic activity and quantitation of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in prenatal human brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289:1648–1653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi DW, Leininger-Muller B, Wellman M et al (2004) Cytochrome p-450-mediated differential oxidative modification of proteins: albumin, apolipoprotein E, and CYP2E1 as targets. J Toxicol Environ Health A 67:2061–2071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chou AP, Li S, Fitzmaurice AG et al (2010) Mechanisms of rotenone-induced proteasome inhibition. Neurotoxicology 31:367–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eickhorn R, Weirich J, Hornung D, Antoni H (1990) Use dependence of sodium current inhibition by tetrodotoxin in rat cardiac muscle: influence of channel state. Pflugers Arch 416:398–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goetz ME, Luch A (2008) Reactive species: a cell damaging rout assisting to chemical carcinogens. Cancer Lett 266:73–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gonzalez FJ (2005) Role of cytochromes P450 in chemical toxicity and oxidative stress: studies with CYP2E1. Mutat Res 569:101–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haggerty HG, Kim BS, Holsapple MP (1990) Characterization of the effects of direct alkylators on in vitro immune responses. Mutat Res 242:67–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hodgon E, Smart RC (2001) Introduction to biochemical toxicology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Jaeschke H, Gores GJ, Cederbaum AI et al (2002) Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Sci 65:166–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Luís PB, Ruiter JP, Aires CC et al (2007) Valproic acid metabolites inhibit dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity leading to impaired 2-oxoglutarate-driven oxidative phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:1126–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Masini A, Ceccarelli-Stanzani D et al (1985) The role of pentachlorophenol in causing mitochondrial derangement in hexachlorobenzene induced experimental porphyria. Biochem Pharmacol 34:1171–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mates JM (2000) Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology. Toxicology 153:83–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pamplona R (2008) Membrane phospholipids, lipoxidative damage and molecular integrity: a causal role in aging and longevity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:1249–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pérez MJ, Cederbaum AI (2003) Adenovirus-mediated expression of Cu/Zn- or Mn- superoxide dismutase protects against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity. Hepatology 38:1146–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Spracklin DK, Hankins DC, Fisher JM et al (1997) Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the principal catalyst of human oxidative halothane metabolism in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 281:400–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Tong V, Teng XW, Chang TK, Abbott FS (2005) Valproic acid II: effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytotoxicity in glutathione-depleted rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Sci 86:436–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wells PG, Kim PM, Laposa RR et al (1997) Oxidative damage in chemical teratogenesis. Mutat Res 396:65–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. West JD, Marnett LJ (2005) Alterations in gene expression induced by the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Chem Res Toxicol 18:1642–1653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity at Albany, State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations