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Biomaterial-Dependent Characteristics of the Foreign Body Response and S. epidermidis Biofilm Interactions

  • James M. Anderson
  • Jasmine D. Patel
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents our efforts to develop a better mechanistic understanding of how biomaterial interactions with blood components lead to alteration of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms, in particular, inflammation and the foreign body response, which increase the probability of bacterial interactions, colonization, biofilm formation, and infection. In particular, we present perspectives on mechanisms of S. epidermidis biofilm formation, the role of surface chemistry on biofilm formation, the role of bacterial slime production in device infections, the apoptosis of adherent polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the acute inflammatory response, neutrophil mobility and phagocytosis of bacteria on biomaterials, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by biomaterial-adherent neutrophils, and quorum sensing in S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Our work has focused on infection mechanisms of cardiovascular prostheses and devices where blood hemodynamics and shear stress play important roles in inflammatory cell interactions with biomaterial surfaces. However, we believe that much of our results also are applicable to static implant situations found in orthopedic, cosmetic (plastic), and other surgical areas.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Synthases Bacterial Adhesion Foreign Body Giant Cell Biomaterial Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AAP

Accumulation-associated protein

agr

Accessory gene regulator

atlE

Staphylococcal adhesin

BMA

n-Butyl methacrylate

C3bi

Inactive complement component C3b, iC3b

cNOS

Constitutive nitric oxide synthetase

CXCL4

Platelet factor, PF-4

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase

ERK

Extracellular-signal-related kinase

FAK

Focal adhesion kinase

Fbe

Fibrinogen-binding protein

fMLP

N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine

IL-1

Interleukin-1

IL-4

Interleukin-4

IL-6

Interleukin-6

IL-10

Interleukin-10

IL-12

Interleukin-12

IL-13

Interleukin-13

IL-18

Interleukin-18

INFγ

Interferon gamma

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthetase

l-NMMA

NG-methyl-l-arginine, acetate salt

LTB4

Leukotriene

luxS

Accessory gene regulator

MAPC

ω-Methylacryloyloxyalkyl phosphorylcholine

MCP-1

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1

MIP-1α

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthetase

OTS

Octadecyltrichlorosilane

O2

Superoxide anion

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PEO

Polyethylene oxide

PIA

Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin

PMA

Phorbal myristate acetate

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte

PS/A

Polysaccharide/adhesin

RANTES

Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell cytokine

ROI

Reactive oxygen intermediate

SAM

Self-assembled monolayer

SdrG

Fibrinogen-binding protein

SME

Surface modifying end-groups

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-beta

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Notes

Acknowledgment

This review was supported in part by Award Number EB000279 from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.ExponentPhiladelphiaUSA

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