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Topical Antimicrobial-Containing Biomaterials for Peri-Implant Infections in the Oral Cavity

  • Stefan RenvertEmail author
  • G. Rutger Persson
Chapter

Abstract

Implant mucositis and peri-implantitis have an infectious etiology. If left untreated the inflammatory responses and the infection will result in loss of alveolar bone around dental implants. Clinically, this is combined with edema and redness of the soft tissues surrounding the implant. The ultimate consequences of implant mucositis and peri-implantitis may be loss of the implant.

Dental implant manufacturers have focused on implant design, ease of placement, esthetics, and new prosthetic components. Enhancement of osseo-integration has been attempted by changing titanium surface structures, titanium purity, and various coatings.

The biofilm structures at titanium dental implants comprise of bacteria that co-aggregate with each other and are difficult to eliminate mainly due to the rough threaded surfaces of oral implants making them difficult to debride. The microbiota initiates a host inflammatory response that in many aspects are similar to what can be seen in periodontitis. The prevalence of peri-implantitis ranges between 15 and 25%. Patients who have lost teeth due to periodontitis may be more prone to peri-implantitis. The susceptibility may be directly associated with a genetically complex predisposing risk.

Recent data suggest that professional mechanical debridement of pockets around implants and the patients’ own ability to keep implants free from bacteria is unpredictable. Professional debridement may be efficacious over shorter time periods and would most likely require intensive supportive therapy. In the event of limited response to nonsurgical mechanical supportive therapy, the adjunct use of local application of a slow-release antimicrobial agent could be considered. Surgical treatment to eliminate soft tissue pocket and attempts to establish hygienic conditions may not be acceptable to the patient in the esthetic areas. In these situations regenerative therapy may be considered.

Antibiotics are commonly used in medicine to treat infections. Restrictive use of antibiotics is a necessity to prevent the occurrence of wide-spread antibiotic resistance. Peri-implantitis is a local infection confined to the area around the affected implant. Therefore, local administration of an antibiotic drug in a high concentration is logical. Several local antibiotic products have been developed and studied extensively. Such local antibiotic drugs have been on the market for some years but due to a variety of factors some of these local antibiotics have been withdrawn from the market or may only be available in some countries. There is a need to develop new methods allowing effective delivery of local antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of implant infections.

Keywords

Oral Hygiene Dental Implant Titanium Surface Titanium Implant Periodontal Pocket 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Glossary

Autogenous bonegraft

Involves utilizing bone obtained from the same individual receiving the graft

Bactericidal

A substance that kills bacteria

Bacteriostatic

A substance that inhibit growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them

Biofilm

A biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells adhere to each other and/or to a surface

Gingivitis

A reversible inflammation of the soft tissue surrounding the teeth

Implant Mucositis

An inflammatory lesion that resides in the mucosa. This is clinically identified by redness, swelling, and bleeding on probing

Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 and 100 nm in at least one dimension and involves developing materials or devices within that size

Osseo-integration

A direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant

Peri-implantitis

An inflammatory lesion in the mucosa also affecting the supporting bone. This is clinically identified by redness, swelling bleeding on probing and bone loss

Periodontitis

An irreversible inflammation of the soft and hard tissues surrounding the teeth leading to a loss of bone support

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KristianstadKristianstadSweden
  2. 2.Trinity CollegeDublinIreland
  3. 3.Blekinge Tekniska HögskolaKarlskronaSweden
  4. 4.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.University of BernBernSwitzerland

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