Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Islet Cell Function

Chapter

Abstract

The β cells of the islets of Langerhans are the only cells in the body that produce a ­meaningful quantity of insulin, a hormone that has evolved to be essential for life, exerting critical control over carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Islets are scattered throughout the pancreas; although they vary in size, they typically contain about 1,000 cells, of which approximately 70% are β cells. A human pancreas contains about one million islets, which comprise only about 2% of the mass of the pancreas. Insulin is released into the portal vein, which means the liver is exposed to particularly high concentrations of insulin.

Keywords

Obesity Adenosine Arginine Norepinephrine Epinephrine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon C. Weir
    • 1
  • Susan Bonner-Weir
    • 1
  • Arun Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology Department, Joslin Diabetes CenterHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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