Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Islet Cell Function
The β cells of the islets of Langerhans are the only cells in the body that produce a meaningful quantity of insulin, a hormone that has evolved to be essential for life, exerting critical control over carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Islets are scattered throughout the pancreas; although they vary in size, they typically contain about 1,000 cells, of which approximately 70% are β cells. A human pancreas contains about one million islets, which comprise only about 2% of the mass of the pancreas. Insulin is released into the portal vein, which means the liver is exposed to particularly high concentrations of insulin.
KeywordsInsulin Secretion Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Glucagon Secretion Pancreatic Development Insulin Gene Expression
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