Orbital Signs of Parasellar Syndromes

  • Christina H. Choe
  • Wayne T. Cornblath


Retro-orbital pathology involving the parasellar region can cause signs and symptoms that can be mistaken for orbital disease. Patients can present with a combination of proptosis, eyelid edema and erythema, chemosis, vision loss, numbness, and ophthalmoplegia with or without pain. A retro-orbital process should be considered when ophthalmoplegia is more consistent with a cranial neuropathy affecting the oculomotor nerve (CN 3), trochlear nerve (CN 4), or abducens nerve (CN 6) rather than extraocular muscle limitation. They have been divided anatomically into the superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS), orbital apex syndrome (OAS), or cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS).


Internal Carotid Artery Cavernous Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Inferior Petrosal Sinus Cranial Neuropathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and NeurologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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