Surgery of the Punctum and Canaliculus



Punctal stenosis can result from aging changes or from a history of chronic inflammation, such as blepharitis and canaliculitis, or from idiopathic causes [1]. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as Docetaxel (Tamoxifen) and 5-fluorouracil, can cause punctal as well as canalicular stenosis [2, 3].


Tamoxifen Nylon Epinephrine Docetaxel Lidocaine 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmic Plastic and Facial SurgeryEisenhower Medical CenterRancho MirageUSA

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