The Emergence of Reason, Intelligence, and Language in Humans and Animals

  • William A. Hillix
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
Chapter

Abstract

Emergence as an overarching paradigm requires an introductory analysis about the importance and types of causality. As L’Abate (2005) commented, there are at least three different types of causality or important principles necessary for theory construction: equifinality, when many courses lead to one single outcome, equipotentiality, one single cause can lead to many different outcomes, and multicausality, when many causes lead to many different outcomes.

Keywords

Placebo Corn Microwave Mercury Cage 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The preparation of this manuscript and much of the research herein reported were supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD-06016 and HD-060563). Additional support from the College of Arts & Sciences, Georgia State University, also is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Hillix
    • 1
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
    • 2
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
    • 3
  1. 1.San Diego State UniversityLa MesaUSA
  2. 2.Georgia State UniversityHighland ParkUSA
  3. 3.Great Ape Trust of IowaDes MoinesUSA

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