The Emergence of Reason, Intelligence, and Language in Humans and Animals

  • William A. Hillix
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh


Emergence as an overarching paradigm requires an introductory analysis about the importance and types of causality. As L’Abate (2005) commented, there are at least three different types of causality or important principles necessary for theory construction: equifinality, when many courses lead to one single outcome, equipotentiality, one single cause can lead to many different outcomes, and multicausality, when many causes lead to many different outcomes.


Conditional Stimulus Causal Chain Causal Power Causal Sequence Billiard Ball 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The preparation of this manuscript and much of the research herein reported were supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD-06016 and HD-060563). Additional support from the College of Arts & Sciences, Georgia State University, also is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Hillix
    • 1
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
    • 2
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
    • 3
  1. 1.San Diego State UniversityLa MesaUSA
  2. 2.Georgia State UniversityHighland ParkUSA
  3. 3.Great Ape Trust of IowaDes MoinesUSA

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