Advertisement

History and Current Importance

  • Enrico Biancardi
  • Leonard W. Panella
  • Robert T. Lewellen
Chapter

Abstract

Sea beet is known from prehistory for food and above all for medicinal uses. After domestication, beet became more and more important, especially after its most recent use as a sugar crop. But also the cultivation for leaves and root to be used as vegetables and cattle feed retains its economic value. Beta maritima has become crucial as source of useful traits, which disappeared in the crop during domestication. This research, which has led to important results, especially in the field of resistances to severe diseases, continues today. The activity of some involved scientists is recounted. An increasing amount of publications are dedicated to sea beet because the species also fits well into studies concerning population genetics, natural breeding systems, colonization, speciation, gene flow, etc.

Keywords

History of sea beet Crop evolution Beta maritima ­history Domestication Origins of sea beet Researchers involved 

References

  1. Notes to the reader: In old books listed in the references, after the anglicized name of the authors and after the title (sometimes abbreviated), listed in the following order are: the printer or publisher (when available), the modern and anglicized name of the location of printing, and the current country. The printer or publisher is typed in Roman characters. When it is the case, the references of more recent reprintings are indicated as well. Google Scholar
  2. Achard FC (1907/1803) Anleitung zum Anbau der zur Zuckerfabrication anwendbaren Runkelrüben und zur vortheilhaften Gewinnung des Zuckers aus denselben. Ostwald’s Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaft, Engelmann, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  3. Allard RW (1960) Principles of plant breeding. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson FJ (1977) An illustrated history of the herbals. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot J Linn Soc 141:399–436Google Scholar
  6. Arber AR (1912) Herbals, their origin and evolution. History of botany. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 1470–1670Google Scholar
  7. Arnaud JF (2008) Importance de la dispersion dans la structuration génétique et l’évolution du système de reproduction chez une espèce gynodioique. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille 1Google Scholar
  8. Avagyan A (2008) Crop wild relatives in Armenia: diversity, legislation, and conservation issues. In: Maxed M, Ford-Lloyd BV, Kell SP, Iriondo JM, Dulloo ME, Turok J (eds) Crop wild relative conservation and use. CABI, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp 58–76Google Scholar
  9. Baldacci A, de Toni E, Frati L, Ghigi A, Gortani M, Morini F, Ridolfi AC, Sorbelli A (1907) Intorno alla vita ed alle opere di Ulisse Aldrovandi. Libreria Treves di L, Beltrami, Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbaro H (1494) Castigationes Plinianae. Pomponium Melam, Venice?, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartsch D, Brand U (1998) Saline soil condition decreases rhizomania infection of Beta vulgaris. J Plant Pathol 80:219–223Google Scholar
  12. Bartsch D, Lehnen M, Clegg J, Pohl-Orf M, Schuphan I, Ellstrand NC (1999) Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations. Mol Ecol 8:1733–1741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartsch D, Cuguen J, Biancardi E, Sweet J (2003) Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet – current status and future research needs. Environ Biosafety Res 2:105–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bateson W (1902) Mendel’s principles of heredity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauhin G (1623) Pinax theatri botanici… etc. Sumptibus et typis Ludovici Regis, Basel, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Bauhin H (1731) Kräuter Buch. Jacobus Theodorus, Basel, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  17. Baxter W (1837) British phaenerogamous botany. Parker, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. Becker-Dillingen J (1928) Handbuch des Hackfruchtbaues und Handelapflanzbaues. Paul Parey, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  19. Beguinot A (1910) Contributo alla conoscenza della flora litoranea del Polesine. Rivista Agraria Polesana 12:232–242Google Scholar
  20. Berti-Pichat C (1866) Corso teorico e pratico di agricoltura. Unione Tipografico-Editrice, Turin, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  21. Biancardi E (1984) La barbabietola da zucchero. Scientific American (Italian Ed ) 184:120–130Google Scholar
  22. Biancardi E, de Biaggi M (1979) Beta martima L. in the Po Delta. In: ISCI (ed) Proc Convegno Tecnico Internazionale in Commemorazione di Ottavio Munerati. Rovigo, Italy, pp 183–185Google Scholar
  23. Biancardi E, Lewellen RT, de Biaggi M, Erichsen AW, Stevanato P (2002) The origin of rhizomania resistance in sugar beet. Euphytica 127:383–397Google Scholar
  24. Biancardi E, Campbell LG, Skaracis GN, de Biaggi M (2005) Genetics and breeding of sugar beet. Science Publishers, Enfield NH, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Biancardi E, McGrath JM, Panella LW, Lewellen RT, Stevanato P (2010) Sugar beet. In: Bradshaw JE (ed) Root and tuber crops. Springer Science+Bussines Media, LLC, New York NY, USA, pp. 173–219Google Scholar
  26. Blackwell E (1765) Sammlung der Gewachse. de Launoy, Nurenberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  27. Bock H (1552) De stirpium maxime earum quae in Germania… etc. Josias Rihel, Strassburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  28. Bock H (1560) Kreuter Buch. Gedrucht zu Strassburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  29. Bois D (1927) Les plantes alimentaires chez tous les peuples et a travers les ages. Lechevalier Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  30. Bottema S (2010) Pollen profile of sediment core Agköl Adabag, Turkey and Lake Urmia (Iran). European Pollen Database, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.739926Google Scholar
  31. Boudry P, Mörchen M, Saumitou-Laprade P, Vernet P, Dijk H (1993) The origin and evolution of weed beets: consequences for the breeding and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets. Theor Appl Genet 87:471–478Google Scholar
  32. Briem H (1895) Der praktische Rübenbau. Hofbuchhandlung Wilhelm Frick, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  33. Brotero FA (1804) Flora Lusitanica. Ex Typographia Regia, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  34. Bruhnfels O (1531) In hoc volumine contenitur insignium medicorum... etc. Strassbourg, FranceGoogle Scholar
  35. Bruhnfels O (1532) Herbarium vivae icones. Strassbourg, FranceGoogle Scholar
  36. Buschan G (1895) Vorgeschichtliche Botanik der Cultur-und Nutzpflanzen der alten Welt auf Grund prähistorischer Funde. Kern, Breslau, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  37. Campbell LG (2010) Registration of seven sugarbeet germplasms selected from crosses between cultivated sugarbeet and wild Beta species. J Plant Reg 4:149–154Google Scholar
  38. Campbell GKG, Russell GE (1964) Breeding in sugar beet. Ann Rept Plant Breed Inst Cambridge 1–31Google Scholar
  39. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Edwards AWF (1967) Phylogenetic analysis: models and estimation procedures. Am J Hum Genet 19:233–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chabray D (1666) Stirpium sciatigraphia et icones ex musaeo Dominici Chabraei. Cologn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  41. Coakley L (1987) An account of the culture and use of the mangel wurzel or root scarcity, 4th edn. Charles Dilly, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. Colbach N, Darmency H, Tricault Y (2010) Identifying key life-traits for the dynamics and gene flow in a weedy crop relative: Sensitivity analysis of the GeneSys simulation model for weed beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris). Ecol Model 221:225–237Google Scholar
  43. Coles W (1657) Adam in Eden or natures paradise. F Streater, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  44. Collins M (2000) Medioeval herbals, the illustrative traditon. British Library and University Toronto Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  45. Coons GH (1936) Improvement of the sugar beet. 1936 Yearbook of agriculture. USDA, Washington, DC, USA, pp 625–656Google Scholar
  46. Coons GH (1938) Wild species of the genus Beta. Proc ASSBT 1:74–76Google Scholar
  47. Coons GH (1953a) Breeding for resistance to disease. Yearbook Agric 1953:174–192Google Scholar
  48. Coons GH (1953b) Disease resistance breeding of sugar beets-1918–1952. Phytopathology 43:297–303Google Scholar
  49. Coons GH (1954) The wild species of Beta. Proc ASSBT 8:142–147Google Scholar
  50. Coons GH (1975) Interspecific hybrids between Beta vulgaris L. and the wild species of Beta. J ASSBT 18:281–306Google Scholar
  51. Coons GH, Stewart D, Bockstahler HW, Deming GW, Gaskill JO, Lill JG, Schneider CL (1950) Report on 1949 tests of U.S. 216 x 225 and other varieties from sugar beet leaf spot resistance breeding investigation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Proc ASSBT 6:209–217Google Scholar
  52. Coons GH, Owen FV, Stewart D (1955) Improvement of the sugar beet in the United States. Adv Agron 7:89–139Google Scholar
  53. Cureton AN, Newbury HJ, Raybould AF, Ford-Lloyd BV (2006) Genetic structure and gene flow in wild beet populations: the potential influence of habitat on transgene spread and risk assessment. J Appl Ecol 43:1203–1212Google Scholar
  54. Da Villanova A (1520) Tractatus de virtutibus herbarum. Alessandro Bindoni, Venice, Italy.Google Scholar
  55. Dahlberg HW (1938) Some observations on the wild beet (Beta maritima). Proc ASSBT 1:76–79Google Scholar
  56. Dalby A (2003) Food in the ancient world from A to Z. Routledge, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  57. Dale MFB, Ford-Lloyd BV, Arnold MH (1985) Variation in some agronomically important characters in a germplasm collection of beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Euphytica 34:449–455Google Scholar
  58. Dalechamps J (1587) Historia generalis plantarum. Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  59. Darmency H, Vigouroux Y, Gestat de Garambé T, Richard-Molard M, Muchembled C (2007) Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring. Environ Biosafety Res 6:197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Darmency H, Klein E, Gestat de Garanbé T, Gouyon PH, Richard-Molard M, Muchembled C (2009) Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields. Theor Appl Genet 118:1083–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. de Biaggi M (1987) Mehodes de selection – un cas concret. Proc IIRB. Brussels, Belgium, pp 157–161Google Scholar
  62. de Bock TSM (1986) The genus Beta: Domestication, taxonomy and interspecific hybridization for plant breeding. Acta Horticulturae 182:335–343Google Scholar
  63. de Candolle A (1884) Der Ursprung der Culturpflazen. Brockhaus, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  64. de Candolle A (1885) Origin of cultivated plants. D. Appleton and Company, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  65. de Candolle A (1904) The origin of cultivated plants, 2nd edn. Paul Kegan and Co, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  66. de Crescenzi P (1605) Trattato dell’agricoltura. Florence, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  67. de Divitiis E, Cappabianca P, de Divitiis O (2004) The “scola medica salernitana”: the forerunner of the modern university medical schools. Neurosurgery 55:722–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. de Lobel M (1576) Plantarum seu stirpium historia… etc. Ex Officina Christophori Plantinii Antwerp, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  69. de Lobel M (1591) Icones stirpium seu plantarum tam exoticarum quam indigenarum… etc. Antwerp, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  70. de Toni E (1925) Il libro dei semplici di Benedetto Rinio. Memorie Pontificia Romana Accademia Nuovi Lincei 8:123–264Google Scholar
  71. de Tournefort JP (1700) Institutiones rei herbariae. Thypographia Regia, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  72. de Vilmorin L (1850) Note sur un projet d’experence ayant pur but d’ augmenter la richesse saccarine de la betterave. Sociètè Imperiale Centrale d’ Agricolture 6:169Google Scholar
  73. de Vilmorin L (1856) Note sur la création d’une nouvelle race de betteraves `a sucre – Considérations sur l’hérédité dans les végétaux. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 43(1):113Google Scholar
  74. de Vilmorin JL (1923) L’ hérédité de la betterave cultivée. Gauthier-Villars, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  75. Desplanque B, Hautekèete NC, van Dijk H (2002) Transgenic weed beets: possible, provable, avoidable. J Appl Ecol 39:561–571Google Scholar
  76. Diderot M, D’Alambert M (1751) Encyclopèdie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiérs. Briasson, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  77. Dodoens R (1553) Stirpium historia etc. Ex Officina Iohannis Loci, Anterwep, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  78. Doney DL (1992) Morphology of North Atlantic Beta. In: Frese L (ed) International Beta Genetic Resources Network. A report on the 2nd International Beta Genetic Resources Workship held at the Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Braunschweig, Germany, 24–28 June 1991. IPGRI, Rome, Italy, pp. 17–28Google Scholar
  79. Doney DL (1993) Broadening the genetic base of sugarbeet. J Sugar Beet Res 30:209–220Google Scholar
  80. Doney DL (1995) Registration of y317, y318, y311 and y387 sugarbeet germplasms. Crop Sci 35:947Google Scholar
  81. Doney DL, Whitney ED, Terry J, Frese L, Fitzgerald P (1990) The distribution and disperal of Beta maritima germplasm in England, Wales, and Ireland. J Sugar Beet Res 27:29–37Google Scholar
  82. Dorsten T (1540) Botanicon, continens herbarum aliorumque simlicium. Frankfurt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  83. Dudok van Heel JP (1938) The crossing of sugar beet and Beta maritima. Van Zaad tot Suiker 5:65–72Google Scholar
  84. Durante C (1635) Herbario nuovo. Jacomo Bericchi et Jacomo Ternierij, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  85. East E (1912) The Mendelian notation as a description of physiological facts. Am Nat 46:633–643Google Scholar
  86. East EM, Jones DF (1919) Inbreeding and outbreeding: their genetic and sociological significance. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  87. Fahmy AG (1997) Evaluation of the weed flora of Egypt from Predinastic time to Graeco-Romans time. Veget Hist Archaeobot 6:241–242Google Scholar
  88. Feemster-Jashemsky W, Meyer FG (2002) The natural history of Pompeii. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  89. Fehr WR (1987) Principles of cultivar development, 1st edn. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  90. Fellner S (1879) Compendium der Naturwissenschaften an der Schule zu Fulda… etc. T. Grieben, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  91. Fievet V, Touzet P, Arnaud JF, Cuguen J (2007) Spatial analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA diversity in wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) populations: Do marine currents shape the genetic structure? Mol Ecol 16:1847–1864Google Scholar
  92. Fischer-Benzon R (1894) Alteutsche Gardenflora, Untersuchungen über die Nutzpflanzen des deutschen Mittelater. Verlag con Lipsius & Tischer, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  93. Ford-Lloyd BV, Hawkes JG (1986) Weed beets, their origin and classification. Acta Hortic 82:399–404Google Scholar
  94. Ford-Lloyd BV, Williams ALS, Williams JT (1975) A revision of Beta section Vulgares (Chenopodiaceae), with new light on the origin of cultivated beets. Bot J Linn Soc 71:89–102Google Scholar
  95. Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A, Seung-Chul K, Crawford DJ (2000) Plant genetic diversity in the Canarian Islands: a conservaton perspective. Am J Bot 87:909–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fuchs L (1551) De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. Arnolletum, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  97. Funari PP (1998) Le rire populaire a Pompeii. Colloquie Int. “Le rire chez les anciennes” Grenoble 9–12 December, FranceGoogle Scholar
  98. Gasparrini-Leporace T, Paolacci G, Maffei SL (1952) Un inedito erbario farmaceutico medioevale. Leo S. Olschki Editore, Florence, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  99. Gerard P, Poggi G (1636) The herbal, or general history of plants. Ex Officina Harnoldi Hatfield, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  100. Geschwind L, Sellier E (1902) La Betterave. Association des Chemistes de Sucrèrie, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  101. Gray SF (1821) A natural arrangement of British plants, vol 2. Baldwin, Kradook, and Joy, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  102. Greene EL (1909a) Carolus Linnaeus. Chrstopher Sower Company, Philadelphia, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  103. Greene EL (1909b) Linnaeus as an evolutionist. Proc Washington Acad Sci 9:17–26Google Scholar
  104. Hardwicke HJ (1887) Evolution and creation. A monthly record of science. Hardwicke, Chicago IL, USAGoogle Scholar
  105. Harlan JR (1992) Crops and man. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  106. Harris JA (1917) Biometric studies on the somatic and genetic physiology of the sugar beet. Am Nat 51:857–865Google Scholar
  107. Hautekèete NC, van Dijk H, Piquot Y, Teriokhin A (2009) Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: comparing model to data. Acta Oecol 35:104–116Google Scholar
  108. Hill J (1775) The vegetable system etc. Trueman, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  109. Hohmann S, Kadereit JW, Kadereit G (2006) Understanding Mediterranean-Californian disjunctions: molecular evidence from Chenopodiaceae-Betoideae. Taxon 55:67–78Google Scholar
  110. Hooker WJ (1835) The British flora. George Walker Arnott, Glasgow, UKGoogle Scholar
  111. ISCI (1979) Sulla barbabietola da zucchero (Munerati’s Opera Omnia). ISCI, Rovigo, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  112. Jackson BD (1881) Guide to the literature of botany: being classified selection of botanical works. Longmans & Green, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  113. Jaeger W (1952) Diokles von Karystos und Aristoxenos von Tarent über die Prinzipien. Winter, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  114. Johnson T (1936) The herbal or general history of plants by J. Gerard (Revised and Enlarged by Thomas Johnson). Dover Publications, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  115. Jones HA, Davis G (1944) Inbreeding and heterosis and their relation to the development of new varieties of onions. USDA Tech Bull No 874, Beltsville, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
  116. Kennedy DJ (1913) Albertus Magnus catholic encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Co, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  117. Kircher A (1643) Lingua aegiptiaca restituta: opus tripartitum quo linguae coptae sive idiomatis illius primaevi Aegiptiorum Pharaonici plena instauratio continetur. Ludovicus Grignanus, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  118. Kleiner M, Hacker M (2010) Grüne Genetechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  119. Knapp E (1958) Beta Rüben. In: Roemer R, Rudorf W (eds) Handbuch der Pflanzenzüchtung. Paul Parey, Berlin, Germany, pp 196–284Google Scholar
  120. Koch DG (1858) Synopsis florae Germanicae et Helveticae, 3rd edn. Gebhardt & Reisland, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  121. Körber-Grohne U (1987) Nutzpflanzen in Deutschland. Dissertation, Univ Stuttgart, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  122. Krasochkin VT (1959) Review of the species of the genus Beta. Trudy Po Prikladnoi Botanike Genetik i Selektsii 32:3–35Google Scholar
  123. Krasochkin VT (1960) Beet. Gos. Izdat. S.H. Lit, Moskow-Leningrad, RussiaGoogle Scholar
  124. Kubiak-Martens L (1999) The plant food component of the diet at the late Mesolithic (Ertebolle) settlement at Tybrind Vig, Denmark. Veg Hist Archaeobot 8:117–127Google Scholar
  125. Kubiak-Martens L (2002) New evidence for the use of root foods in pre-agrarian subsistence recovered from the late Mesolithic site at Halsskov, Denmark. Veget Hist Archaeobot 11:23–31Google Scholar
  126. Lamarck K (1810) Encyclopedie methodique botanique etc. Chez H Agasse, France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  127. Lazzarini E, Di Vito M, Segre RV (2004) Historia plantarum transkription, Panini Edizioni Modena, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  128. Letschert JPW (1993) Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation, and taxonomy. Dissertation Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 93–1, Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  129. Lewellen RT (1997) Registration of 11 sugarbeet germplasm C79 lines with resistance to rhizomania. Crop Sci 37:1026Google Scholar
  130. Lewellen RT (2000) Registration of rhizomania resistant sugarbeet  ×  Beta vulgaris subsp. ­maritima germplasms C26, C27, and C51. Crop Sci 40:1513–1515Google Scholar
  131. Lewellen RT, Schrandt JK (2001) Inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in sugar beet derived from Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. Plant Dis 85:627–631Google Scholar
  132. Lewellen RT, Whitney ED (1993) Registration of germplasm lines developed from composite crosses of sugar beet x Beta maritima. Crop Sci 33:882–883Google Scholar
  133. Li J, Schulz B, Stich B (2010) Population structure and genetic diversity in elite sugar beet germplasm investigated with SSR markers. Euphytica 175:35–42Google Scholar
  134. Linnè C (1735) Systema haturae. Thipis Joh T Trattnern, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  135. Mabberley DJ (1997) The plant book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  136. Magnol P (1636) Botanicum Montspelliense. Ex Officina Danielis Pech, Montpellier, FranceGoogle Scholar
  137. Malpighi M (1675) Anatome plantarum. Regia Societate ad Scientiam Naturalem Promovendam. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  138. Malpighi M (1688) Opera omnia. Apud Ventrum Vander, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  139. Marchesetti C (1897) Flora di Trieste e dè suoi dintorni. Museo Civico, Trieste, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  140. Margraaf AS (1599) “Chemischen Versuche einen wahren Zucker aus verschiedenen Pflanzen die in unseren Ländern wachsen zu ziehen (1907)”. Ostwald’s Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaft. Engelmann, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  141. Mattioli PA (1557) I discorsi di Pietro Andrea Mattioli, medico senese. Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  142. Mattioli PA (1565) Commentarij in sex libros Pedacij Dioscoridis Anazarbei, De medica materia. Ex Oficina Valgrisiana, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  143. Mattioli PA (1586) De plantis epitome utilissima. Frankfurt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  144. McFarlane JS (1969) Breeding for resistance to curly top. J IIRB 4:73–83Google Scholar
  145. McFarlane JS (1975) Naturally occurring hybrids between sugarbeet and Beta macrocarpa in the Imperial Valley of California. J ASSBT 18:245–251Google Scholar
  146. McFarlane JS (1984) Breeding for resistance to sugarbeet yellow wilt, Final Report, July 1, 1984. Research conducted under Cooperative Agreement No. 58-9AHZ-0-520 between the ARS-USDA and Beet Sugar Development Foundation, 38 pp. (NSSL accession 83 W304 (PI 610406) Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima from Wembury Bay, UK is resistant)Google Scholar
  147. McFarlane JS (1993a) The Savitsky story: part I. J Sugar Beet Res 30:1–36Google Scholar
  148. McFarlane JS (1993b) The Savitsky story, part II. J Sugar Beet Res 30:125–141Google Scholar
  149. McFarlane JS, Skoyen IO (1964) Three new hybrid sugarbeet varieties for early planting. California Agric 18:2–4Google Scholar
  150. McFarlane JS, Skoyen IO (1965) Sugar beet breeding lines combining resitance to bolting and disease. J ASSBT 13:555–562Google Scholar
  151. McFarlane JS, Price C, Owen FV (1948) Strains of sugarbeets extremely resistant to bolting. Proc ASSBT 5:151–153Google Scholar
  152. Meissner B (1891) Könige Babyloniens und Assyriens; Charakterbilder aus der altorientalischen Geschichte. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  153. Mendel G (1865) Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden. Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr, pp 3–47Google Scholar
  154. Meyer EHF (1849) Die Insel Tenerife. Bbliographisches Institut, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  155. Michiel PA (1510) I cinque libi di piante. Reprinted by Reale Isituto di Lettere, Scienze ed Arti (1940). Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  156. Miller P (1768) Gardener’s dictionary. Francis Rivington et al, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  157. Munerati O (1932) Sull’ incrocio della barbabietola coltivata con la beta selvaggia della costa adriatica. L’Industria Saccarifera Italiana 25:303–304Google Scholar
  158. Munerati O (1946) Il problema della barbabietola. Consulta Regionale Veneta dell’Agicoltura e delle Foreste. Stamperia Editrice Zanetti, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  159. Munerati O, Zapparoli TV (1915) di alcune anomalie della Beta vulgaris L. Atti Regia Accademia dei Lincei 25:1239Google Scholar
  160. Munerati O, Mezzadroli C, Zapparoli TV (1913) Osservazioni sulla Beta maritima L. nel triennio 1910–1912. Staz Sper Ag Ital 46:415–445Google Scholar
  161. Naccari FL (1826) Flora veneta. Bonvecchiato Editore, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  162. Nieuwhof A (2006) Changing landscape and grazing: macroremains from the terp Peins-east, province of Friesland, the Netherlands. Veget Hist Archaeobot 15:125–136Google Scholar
  163. Ober ES, Luterbacher MC (2002) Genotypic variation for drought tolerance in Beta vulgaris. Ann Bot 89:917–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Owen FV (1941) Asexual propagation of sugar beets. J Hered 32:187–192Google Scholar
  165. Owen FV (1942) Inheritance of cross- and self-sterility in Beta vulgaris L. J Agric Res 64:679–698Google Scholar
  166. Owen FV (1944) Variability in the species Beta vulgaris L. in relation to breeding possibilities with sugar beets. J Am Soc Agron 36:566–569Google Scholar
  167. Owen FV (1945) Cytoplasmically inherited male-sterility in sugar beets. J Agric Res 71:423–440Google Scholar
  168. Owen FV (1948) Utilization of male sterility in breeding superior-yielding sugar beets. Proc ASSBT 5:156–161Google Scholar
  169. Owen FV (1950) The sugar beet breeder’s problem of establishing male-sterile populations for hybridization purposes. Proc ASSBT 6:191–194Google Scholar
  170. Owen FV (1952) Mendelian male sterility in sugar beets. Proc ASSBT 7:371–376Google Scholar
  171. Owen FV (1954) Hybrid sugar beets made by utilizing both cytoplasmic and Mendelian male sterility. Proc ASSBT 8:64Google Scholar
  172. Owen FV, McFarlane JS (1958) Successive annual backcrosses to a nonbolting inbred line of sugar beets. J ASSBT 10:124–132Google Scholar
  173. Owen FV, Abegg FA, Murphy AM, Tolman B, Price C, Larmer FG, Carsner E (1939) Curly-top-resistant sugar-beet varieties in 1938. Circular No. 513. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  174. Owen FV, Carsner E, Stout M (1940) Photothermal induction of flowering in sugar beets. J Agric Res 61:101–124Google Scholar
  175. Owen FV, Murphy AM, Ryser GK (1946) Inbred lines from curly-top-resistant varieties of sugar beet. Proc ASSBT 4:246–252Google Scholar
  176. Pabst G (1887) Kohler‘s medizinal Pflanzen Atlas. Gers-Huntermhaus, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  177. Pals JP (1984) Plant remains from Aartswoud, a neolithic settlement in the coastal area. In: van Zeist W, Casparie WA (eds) Plants and ancient man: studies in palaeoethnobotany. Proceedings of the sixth symposium of the international work group for palaeoethnobotany, 30 May–3 June, Groningen, the Netherlands, 1983. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands pp 313–321Google Scholar
  178. Panella L, Lewellen RT (2007) Broadening the genetic base of sugar beet: introgression from wild relatives. Euphytica 154:382–400Google Scholar
  179. Parkinson J (1629) Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris, or a garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers. Humfrey Lownes and Robert Young, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  180. Parkinson J (1655) Matthiae de L’Obel Stirpium Illustrationes. Warren, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  181. Pena P, De Lobel M (1576) Stirpium adversaria nova … etc. Ex Officina Christophori Plantinii, Anterwep, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  182. Perry D (1999) Vegetative tissues from Mesolithic sites in the northern Netherlands. Curr Anthropol 40:231–232Google Scholar
  183. Pezzella S (1993) Gli erbari: i primi libri di medicina. Grifo, Perugia, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  184. Pezzella F (2007) Un erbario indedito veneto (sec. XV) svela i segreti delle piante medicinali. Grifo, Perugia, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  185. Piccoli F (2000) Storia ed evoluzione degli erbari. Gli erbari ferraresi. In: Chendi A (ed) Erbe ed erbari a Ferrara dal ‘400 ai giorni nostri. TLA Editrice, Ferrara, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  186. Pitacco P (2002) Un prestito mai refuso: la vicenda del Liber de Simplicibus di Benedetto Rini. In: Borean L, Mason S (eds) Figure di collezionistia Venezia tra Cinquecento e Seicento. Forum, Udine, Italy, pp 11–23Google Scholar
  187. Pitard J, Proust L (1909) Les Iles Canaries, flore de I’archipel. Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  188. Poehlman JM (1987) Breeding Field Crops. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  189. Poiret JLM (1827) Historie des plantes de l’ Europe. Ladrange et Verdierère, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  190. Ray J (1693) Historia plantarum generalis. Smith & Walford, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  191. Ray J (1703) Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta. Smith & Walford, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  192. Ray J (1724) Synopsis methodica stirpium Britannicarum... etc., 3rd edn. Innis, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  193. Ray J (1738) Travels through the low-countries, Germany, Italy, and France, 2nd edn. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  194. Reeves PA, He Y, Schmitz RJ, Amasino RM, Panella LW, Richards CM (2007) Evolutionary conservation of the FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated vernalization response: evidence from the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Genetics 176:295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Reichenbach L, Reichenbach HG (1909) Icones florae Germanicae et Helveticae. Sumptibus Federici de Zezschwitz, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  196. Rimpau W (1891) Kreuzungproducte landwirtschaftlicher Kulturpflanzen. Landwirtschaft Jahrbuch vol. 20, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  197. Rivera D, Obón C, Heinrich M, Inocencio C, Verde A, Farajado J (2006) Gathered Mediterranean food plants – ethanobotanical investigators and historical development. In: Heinrich M, Müller WE, Galli C (eds) Local Mediterranean food plants and nutraceuticals. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, pp 18–74Google Scholar
  198. Robinson DE, Harild JA (2002) The archeobotany of an early Hertebϕlle (late Mesolithic) site at Hallskow, Denmark. In: Mason SUR, Hather JA (eds) Hunter – gatherer archeobotany. Institute of Archeology, London, UK, pp 50–76Google Scholar
  199. Roccabonella N (1457) Liber simplicibus. Manuscript SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  200. Santoni S, Bervillè A (1992) Two different satellite DNAs in Beta vulgaris L.: evolution, quantification and distribution in the genus. Theor Appl Genet 84:1009–1016Google Scholar
  201. Santoni S, Bervillè A (1995) Characterization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA units and phylogeny of Beta L. wild forms and cultivated beets. Theor Appl Genet 83:533–542Google Scholar
  202. Savitsky H (1950) A method of determining self-fertility of self sterility in sugar beet based upon the stage of ovule development shortly after flowering. Proc ASSBT 6:198–201Google Scholar
  203. Savitsky VF (1952) Methods and results of breeding work with monogerm beets. Proc ASSBT 7:344–350Google Scholar
  204. Savitsky H (1960) Meiosis in an F1 hybrid between a Turkish wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) and Beta procumbens. J ASSBT 11:49–67Google Scholar
  205. Savitsky H (1975) Hybridization between Beta vulgaris and B. procumbens and transmission of nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance to sugar beet. Can J Genet Cytol 17:197–209Google Scholar
  206. Savitsky H, Gaskill JO (1957) A cytological study of F1 hybrids between Swiss chard and Beta webbiana. J ASSBT 9:433–449Google Scholar
  207. Savitsky VF, Murphy AM (1954) Study of inheritance for curly top resistance in hybrids between mono- and multigerm beets. Proc ASSBT 8:34–44Google Scholar
  208. Schindler F (1891) Über die Stammpflanze der Runkel- und Zuckerrüben. Botanisches Centralblatt 15:6–16Google Scholar
  209. Schneider JG (1794) Scriptorum rei rusticae veterum latinorum. Fritsch, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  210. Schultes JA (1817) Gründniss einer Geschichte and Literatur der Botanik. Schaumburg, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  211. Sester M, Delanoy M, Colbach N, Darmency H (2004) Crop and density effects on weed beet growth and reproduction. Weed Res 44:50–59Google Scholar
  212. Sester M, Dürr C, Darmency H, Colbach N (2006a) Evolution of weed beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seed bank: Quantification of seed survival, dormancy, germination andf pre-emergence growth. Eur J Agron 24:19–25Google Scholar
  213. Sester M, Dürr C, Darmency H, Colbach N (2006b) Modelling the effects of the cropping systems on the seed bank dynamics and the emergence of weed beet. Ecol Model 204:47–58Google Scholar
  214. Sester M, Tricault Y, Darmency H, Colbach N (2008) GeneSys-Beet: a model of the effects of croppin systems on gene flow between sugar beet and weed beet. Field Crops Res 107:245–256Google Scholar
  215. Shaw B, Thomas TH, Cooke DT (2002) Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) to drought and nutrient deficiency stress. Plant Growth Regulation 37:77–83Google Scholar
  216. Shen Y, Newbury HJ, Ford-Lloyd BV (1996) The taxonomic characterisatoin of annual Beta germplasm in a genetic resources collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 91:205–212Google Scholar
  217. Shen Y, Ford-Lloyd BV, Newbury HJ (1998) Genetic relationships within the genus Beta determined using both PCR-based marker and DNA sequencing techniques. Heredity 80:624–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Shun ZF, Chu SY, Frese L (2000) Study on the relationship between Chinese and East Mediterranean Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris (leaf beet group) accessions. In: Maggioni L, Frese L, Germeier CU, Lipman E (eds) Report of a working group on Beta. First meeting, 9–10 September 1999, Broom’s Barn, Higham, Bury St. Edmunds, UK. IPGRI, Rome, Italy, pp 65–69Google Scholar
  219. Silvatico M (1523) Opus pandectarum medicinae. Bayer Staatsbibliothek, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  220. Simmonds NW (1976) Evolution of crop plants. Longman, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  221. Smith JE (1803) English botany. Taylor Printer Herber’sche Verlag, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  222. Soldano A (2003) L’erbario di Ulisse Aldrovandi. Instituto Veneto di Lettere Scienze ed Arti, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  223. Sontheimer G (1845) Heilmittel der Araber. Frieburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  224. Squalermo L (1561) Liber de simplicibus … etc. Valgrisi, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  225. Sturtevant J (1919) Notes on edible plants. JB Lyon and Co., Albany, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  226. Tanara V (1674) Economia del cittadino in villa. Curti, Stefano, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  227. Taylor JE (1875) Science-gossip, an illustrated medium for interchange and gossip. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  228. Teza E (1898) “De simplicibus” di Benedetto Rinio nel Codice Marciano. Atti Regio Istituto Veneto Lettere Scienze Arti 9:18–29Google Scholar
  229. Theurer JC (1978) Registration of eight germplasm lines of sugarbeet. Crop Sci 18:1101Google Scholar
  230. Thornton RJ (1812) Elements of botany. J. Whiting, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  231. Throop P (1998) Physica by Hildegard von Bingen (1150?). Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VE, USA, Reprinted and translated by P. ThroopGoogle Scholar
  232. Tricault Y, Darmency H, Colbach N (2009) Identifying key components of weed beet management using sensitivity analyses of the GeneSys-Beet model in GM sugar beet. Weed Res 49:581–591Google Scholar
  233. Tschermak-Seysenegg E (1951) the rediscovery of the Gregor Mendel’s work. J Heredity 42:163–174Google Scholar
  234. Turner N (1995) Food plants of coastal first people. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. UBC Press, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  235. Ulbrich E (1934) Chenopodiaceae. In: Engler A, Harms H (eds) Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany, pp 375–584Google Scholar
  236. van Dijk H (2004) Gene exchange between wild and crop in Beta vulgaris: how easy is hybridization and what will happen in later generations? In: den Nijs HCM, Bartsch D, Sweet J (eds) Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives and its consequences. CABI publishers, Inc, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 53–69Google Scholar
  237. van Zeist W, de Roller GJ (1993) Plant remains from Maadi, a predynastic site in Lower Egypt. Veget Hist Archaeobot 2:1–14Google Scholar
  238. Ventura J (1998) Il “De materia medica” nel Medioevo: madiazione araba e ricezione occidentale. In: Speer A, Wagener L (eds) Wissen über Grenzen. De Gruyter, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  239. Veyssiere de la Croze C (1755) Lexicon Aegiptiaco-latinum. Typographus Clarendonianus Oxonii, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  240. Vigouroux Y (2000) Betteraves transgéniques et betteraves adventices:étude des fluz de génes et de leurs conséquences. Dissertation, Université de Bourgogne, FranceGoogle Scholar
  241. Voigt R, Grüger E, Beier J, Meischner D (2008) Seasonal variability of Holocene climate: a paleolimnological study on varved sedimens in Lake Jues (Harz Mountains, Germany). J Paleolimnol 40:1021–1052Google Scholar
  242. von Boguslawski E (1984) Zur Geschichte der Beta-Rübe als Kulturpflanze bis zum Beginn des 19. Jahrhundert. Institut für Zuckerrübenforschung, Göttingen, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  243. von Lippmann EO (1925) Geschichte der Rübe (Beta) als Kulturpflanze. Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  244. von Lippmann EO (1929) Geschichte des Zuckers, 2nd edn. Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  245. von Megenberg K (1348) Puch der Natur. Manuscript, Stuttgart, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  246. von Proskowetz E (1892) Über die Stammpflanze der Runkel- und Zuckerrübe. Österreiche-Ungarische Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie und Landwirtschaft 29:303–317Google Scholar
  247. von Proskowetz E (1894) Über die Culturversuche mit Beta maritima L. (und Beta vulgaris L.) im Jahre 1893. Österreiche-Ungarische Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie und Landwirtschaft 31:201–223Google Scholar
  248. von Proskowetz E (1895) Über die Culturversuche mit Beta im Jahre 1894 und über Beobachtungen an Wildformen auf naturlichen Standorten. Österreiche-Ungarische Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie und Landwirtschaft 32:227–275Google Scholar
  249. von Proskowetz E (1896) Über die Culturversuche mit Beta im Jahre 1895. Österreiche- Ungarische Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie und Landwirtschaft 33:711–766Google Scholar
  250. von Proskowetz E (1910) Über das Vorkommen der Wildformen der Zuckerrüben am Quarnero. Österreiche-Ungarische Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie und Landwirtschaft 47:631–640Google Scholar
  251. Wagmann K, Hautekèete NC, Piquot Y, van Dijk H (2010) Potential for evolutionary change in the seasonal timing of germination in sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) mediated by seed dormancy. Genetica 138:763–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Weinmann JG (1737) Phytanthoza iconographia, sive conspecus. Hieronimum Lentium, Regensburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  253. Weitzmann K (1979) Illustrations in rolls and codex. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
  254. Winner C (1993) History of the crop. In: Cooke DA, Scott RK (eds) The sugar beet crop: science into practice. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  255. Woenig F (1866) Die Pflanzen in alten Aegypten. Verlag von Wilhelm Friedrich, Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  256. Ximenez F (1615) De la naturaleza, y virutes de las plantas. Diego Lopez, Mexico City, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  257. Yu MH, Heijbroek W, Pakish LM (1999) The sea beet source of resistance to multiple species of root- knot nematode. Euphytica 108:151–155Google Scholar
  258. Zanichelli G (1735) Storia delle piante che nascono ne’lidi attorno a Venezia. Zanichelli, Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  259. Zohary D (2004) Unconscious selection and the evolution of domesticated plants. Econ Bot 58:5Google Scholar
  260. Zohary D, Hopf M (1973) Domestication of pulses in the Old World. Science 182:887–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Zohary D, Hopf M (2000) Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Biancardi
    • 1
  • Leonard W. Panella
    • 2
  • Robert T. Lewellen
    • 3
  1. 1.Rovigo StationConsiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA)RomeItaly
  2. 2.Crop Research LaboratoryUSDA-ARSFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Crop Improvement & Protection Research UnitUSDA-ARSSalinasUSA

Personalised recommendations