The Biology of the Normal ACL

  • Martha M. Murray
  • Braden C. Fleming


The anterior cruciate ligament is an amazing and complex structure. The orchestration of proteins and cells to form a functional ligament that is capable of constantly fixing small injuries is truly amazing. In this chapter, we will briefly review the major structural components of this important ligament in an effort to set the stage for future chapters describing what happens after an ACL injury, how we might best restore the diverse population of cells and exquisitely complicated structure of this beautiful ligament, and how we may be able to utilize the biology to improve future clinical treatment options.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Collagen Fibril Hamstring Muscle Nuclear Shape Thigh Bone 
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 Research reported in this chapter was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Numbers RO1-AR052772, RO1-AR054099 and RO1-AR056834. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports MedicineBoston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsWarren Alpert Medical School of Brown University/Rhode Island HospitalProvidenceUSA

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