Tourette Syndrome

  • Andrea E. CavannaEmail author
  • Cristiano Termine
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 724)


Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of multiple motor and one or more vocal/phonic tics. TS is increasingly recognized as a common neuropsychiatric disorder usually diagnosed in early childhood and comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 90% of patients, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) being the most common ones. Moreover, a high prevalence of depression and personality disorders has been reported. Although the mainstream of tic management is represented by pharmacotherapy, different kinds of psychotherapy, along with neurosurgical interventions (especially deep brain stimulation, DBS) play a major role in the treatment of TS. The current diagnostic systems have dictated that TS is a unitary condition. However, recent studies have demonstrated that there may be more than one TS phenotype. In conclusion, it appears that TS probably should no longer be considered merely a motor disorder and, most importantly, that TS is no longer a unitary condition, as it was previously thought. Neurodegenerative Diseases, edited by Shamim I. Ahmad.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deep Brain Stimulation Personality Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Tourette Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychiatryUniversity of Birmingham and BSMHFTBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Sobell Department of Movement Disorders, Institute of NeurologyUCLLondonUK
  3. 3.Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Experimental MedicineUniversity of InsubriaVareseItaly

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