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Mitochondrial Importance in Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s Diseases

  • Sónia C. Correia
  • Renato X. Santos
  • George Perry
  • Xiongwei ZhuEmail author
  • Paula I. Moreira
  • Mark A. Smith
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 724)

Abstract

Mitochondria have been long known as “gatekeepers of life and death”. Indeed, these dynamic organelles are the master coordinators of energy metabolism, being responsible for the generation of the majority of cellular ATP. Notably, mitochondria are also one of the primary producers of intracellular reactive oxygen species which are the main inducer of oxidative damage. Neurons, as metabolically active cells with high energy demands, are predominantly dependent on mitochondrial function, as reflected by the observation that mitochondrial defects are key features of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, morphologic, biochemical and molecular genetic studies posit that mitochondria constitute a convergence point for neurodegeneration. Moreover, recent findings convey that neurons are particularly reliant on the dynamic properties of mitochondria, further emphasizing the critical role of mitochondria in neuronal functions. This chapter highlights how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.

Keywords

Neurodegenerative Disease Lipoic Acid Mutant Huntingtin Mitochondrial Alteration Mitochondrial Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sónia C. Correia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Renato X. Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  • George Perry
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xiongwei Zhu
    • 3
    Email author
  • Paula I. Moreira
    • 1
    • 5
  • Mark A. Smith
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of CoimbraUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Life SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Department of PathologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  4. 4.UTSA Neurosciences Institute and Department of BiologyUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine, Institute of PhysiologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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