Unlike mammals, adult fish CNS neurons have a capacity to regenerate their axons after nerve lesion. To study the mechanisms of gene regulation for axonal regeneration, we have investigated regeneration-associated genes in early stage of optic nerve repair process of fish. A cDNA library was constructed from axotomized retinas 24 h previously. Out of 300,000 clones, a positive clone was identified as coagulation factor XIII A subunit (factor XIIIA). Factor XIIIA is well known as the last enzyme in the blood coagulation cascade, which catalyzes fibrin clot formation. In addition, the important role of factor XIIIA on wound healing process has been recently reported. Here we found that factor XIIIA is strongly expressed in the retina and optic nerve in the early stage of optic nerve regeneration and contribute to neurite regrowth. Level of factor XIIIA mRNA increased in the optic nerve itself within a few days of axotomy. Levels of factor XIIIA mRNA started to increase in the retina 1–3 days and peaked at 7–10 days after axotomy. These changes of factor XIIIA gene expression in the retina were localized to only the ganglion cell layer. Recombinant factor XIIIA protein clearly induced neurite outgrowth from adult goldfish retina. These data suggest that upregulation of factor XIIIA contributes to the successful optic nerve regeneration.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Ariëns RA, Lai TS, Weisel JW et al (2002) Role of factor XIII in fibrin clot formation and effects of genetic polymorphisms. Blood 100:743–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker CG, Becker T (2008) Adult zebrafish as a model for successful central nervous system regeneration. Restor Neurol Neurosci 26:71–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
Barthel LK, Raymond PA (1993) Subcellular localization of alpha-tubulin and opsin mRNA in the goldfish retina using digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes detected by alkaline phosphatase and HRP histochemistry. J Neurosci Methods 50:145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
Derrick EK, Barker JN, Khan A et al (1993) The tissue distribution of factor XIIIa positive cells. Histopathology 22:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eitan S, Solomon A, Lavie V et al (1994) Recovery of visual response of injured adult rat optic nerves treated with transglutaminase. Science 264:1764–1768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koriyama Y, Homma K, Sugitani K et al (2007) Upregulation of IGF-I in the goldfish retinal ganglion cells during the early stage of optic nerve regeneration. Neurochem Int 50:749–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lesort M, Tucholski J, Miller ML et al (2000) Tissue transglutaminase: a possible role in neurodegenerative diseases. Prog Neurobiol 61:439–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsukawa T, Arai K, Koriyama Y et al (2004b) Axonal regeneration of fish optic nerve after injury. Biol Pharm Bull 27:445–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsukawa T, Sugitani K, Mawatari K et al (2004a) Role of purpurin as a retinol-binding protein in goldfish retina during the early stage of optic nerve regeneration: its priming action on neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci 24:8346–8353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagashima M, Sakurai H, Mawatari K et al (2009) Involvement of retinoic acid signaling in goldfish optic nerve regeneration. Neurochem Int 54:229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz ML, Pizzo SV, Hill RL et al (1973) Human Factor XIII from plasma and platelets. Molecular weights, subunit structures, proteolytic activation, and cross-linking of fibrinogen and fibrin. J Biol Chem 248:1395–1407PubMedGoogle Scholar
Sugitani K, Matsukawa T, Koriyama Y et al (2006) Upregulation of retinal transglutaminase during the axonal elongation stage of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. Neuroscience 142:1081–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar