The Role of Amyloid-β in Retinal Degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in western countries. It is characterized by the formation of subretinal deposits called drusen, associated with atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), disturbance of the transepithelial barrier, and photoreceptor death. AMD is a complex disease involving many genetic and environmental factors that may confound one another. Although the mechanisms of AMD are not yet clearly understood, the observation of amyloid-β (Aβ), a protein commonly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), within RPE cells and drusen in AMD patients is consistent with the hypothesis that the disease is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Several lines of evidence pinpoint the role of Aβ in RPE dysfunction, and retinal inflammation and alteration leading to retinal degeneration. This review summarizes current knowledge relating to the potential role of Aβ in retinal degeneration with emphasis on AMD.
KeywordsAMD Amyloïd-β Retina Inflammation Degeneration Drusen RPE Cytotoxicity Complement
- Bruban J, Maoui A, Chalour N et al (2011) CCR2/CCL2-mediated inflammation protects photoreceptor cells from amyloid-β-induced apoptosis. Neurobiol Dis. 42:55–72Google Scholar
- Klein R, Peto T, Bird A et al (2004) The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration Am J Ophthalmol. 137:486–495Google Scholar
- Koronyo-Hamaoui M, Koronyo Y, Ljubimov AV et al (2010) Identification of amyloid plaques in retinas from Alzheimer’s patients and noninvasive in vivo optical imaging of retinal plaques in a mouse model. NeuroimageGoogle Scholar
- Tsuruma K, Tanaka Y, Shimazawa M et al (2010) Induction of amyloid precursor protein by the neurotoxic peptide, amyloid-beta 25–35, causes retinal ganglion cell death. Neurochem. 113:1545–1554Google Scholar