A Window to Innate Neuroimmunity: Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Cell Responses in the Retina

  • Mark E. Kleinman
  • Jayakrishna AmbatiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 723)


The retina and its supporting cellular architecture are a valuable biologic system to study neurocytotoxic responses that may reveal important pathways in both retinal and neural degenerative diseases. The innate immune pathway mediated by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA. TLR3 is found both on the cell surface and in endosomes of multiple retinal cell types. Here, we briefly review critical TLR3 signaling pathways and explore the role of receptor activation in neuroimmunity, age-related macular degeneration, and RNA-based drugs.


Macular degeneration Innate immunity Toll-like receptor Apoptosis Double-stranded RNA Short interfering RNA Angiogenesis Choroidal neovascularization Caspase 



J.A. was supported by NEI/NIH, the Doris Duke Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Clinical Scientist Award in Translational Research, the Dr. E. Vernon Smith and Eloise C. Smith Macular Degeneration Endowed Chair, the Senior Scientist Investigator Award (RPB), the American Health Assistance Foundation, and a departmental unrestricted grant from the RPB. M.E.K. by the International Retinal Research Foundation and NIH T32 grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA

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