Thermo-Mechanical Reliability Test and Analysis

  • John Hock Lye Pang


Chapter 6 reports on solder joint reliability test case studies for thermal cycling tests. Thermal cycling test and FEA of lead-free solder PCB assemblies for BGA and FCOB test specimens were evaluated to determine the Weibull cumulative failure distribution. Finite element modeling and simulation of this reliability test was employed to predict the solder joint reliability performance. Experimental study was conducted on lead-free 95.5Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu soldered assemblies provided by Solectron Technology [8]. The test variables include different packages (PBGA, PQFP) and different PCB board surface finishes on copper pads (Cu-OSP, ENIG, and Im-Ag). FEA modeling of the PBGA assembly with 95.5Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu solder joints and fatigue analysis was applied to predict the solder joint mean-time-to-failure life cycles. Failure analysis investigation on intermetallic compound or IMC layer growth subject to isothermal aging, thermal cycling, and thermal shock aging experiments were conducted to correlate IMC layer growth properties in lead-free 95.5Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu solder joint specimens. Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) approaches were also developed for lead-free 95.5Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu soldered PCB assemblies.


  1. 1.
    Tummala RR (2001) Fundamentals of microsystems packaging. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lau JH (1993) Thermal stress and strain in microelectronics packaging. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suhir E (2002) Accelerated life testing (ALT) in microelectronics and photonics: its role, attributes, challenges, pitfalls, and interaction with qualification tests. J Electron Packaging 124:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nelson W (1990) Accelerated testing: statistical models, test plans, and data analyses. Willey, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Norris KC, Landzberg AH (1969) Reliability of controlled collapse interconnections. IBM J Res Dev 13:266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lau JH, Pao YH (1996) Solder joint reliability of BGA, CSP, flip chip, and fine pitch SMT assemblies. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    JEDEC Standard (2000) JESD22-A104-B, Temperature Cycling. July 2000Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    JEDEC Standard (1995) JESD22-A106-A, Temperature shock. April 1995Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Microelectronics packaging material database, Purdue University, Center for Information & Numerical Data Analysis & Synthesis (CINDAS)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ANSYS User Manual (V7.0) (2000). Singapore, 2002Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wiese S, Schubert A, Walter H, Dudek R, Feustel F, Meusel E, Michel B (2001) Constitutive behavior of lead-free solders vs. lead-containing solders – experimentals on bulk specimens and flip chip joint. Proceedings of 51st ECTC, Las Vegas, Nevada, May 2001Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wiese S Wolter K-J (2003) Microstructure and creep behavior of eutectic SnAg and SnAgCu solders. Proceedings of 4th EuroSime, Aix-en Provence, France, April 2003Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanchanomai C, Yamamota S, Miyashita Y, Mutoh Y, McEvily AJ (2002) Low cycle fatigue test for solders using non-contact digital image measurement system. Int J Fatigue 24:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The American Society for Testings & Materials Standards, ASTM E606: Standard practice for strain-controlled fatigue testingGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pang J, Schubert A (2002) Lead free solder materials and reliability performance. 4th Electronic packaging technology conference Short course, Grand Copthorne Waterfront Hotel, Singapore, 10 Dec 2002Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pang JHL, Low TH, Xiong BS, Che FX (2003) Design for reliability (DFR) methodology for electronic packaging assemblies. Proceedings of 5th EPTC conference, Singapore, 10–12 Dec 2003, pp 470–478Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pang JHL, Low TH, Che FX (2004) Lead free 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder joint reliability analysis of Micro-BGA assembly. Proceedings of ITherm 2004 conference, Las Vegas, June 1–4, 2004Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pang JHL, Yeo A, Low TH (2004) Lead free 95Sn-3.5Ag flip chip solder joint reliability analysis. Proceedings of ITherm 2004 conference, Las Vegas, June 1–4 2004Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pang JHL, Xu L, Shi XQ, Zhou W, Ngoh SL (2004) Intermetallic growth studies on Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder joints. Invited paper, TMS annual meeting, 15–18 March 2004, Phase stability, phase transformation, and reactive phase formation in electronic materials III. J Electron MaterCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations