Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Models

  • John Hock Lye Pang


Chapter 3 reports on experimental tests to characterize the mechanical properties for the apparent elastic modulus, yield stress, and ultimate tensile strength. These mechanical properties are highly dependent on test temperature and test strain rate. For high strain-rate test conditions, a Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test method was employed for measuring strain-rate influence on the yield stress of lead-free solder material. Comparisons of these mechanical properties were made for Sn–Ag–Cu, Sn–Cu, and Sn–Pb solder alloys. Strain rate and temperature-dependent mechanics of material models were curve-fitted for the range of temperatures (−40°C to +125°C) and strain-rates (0.0001–1,000 s−1) tested. Creep tests results are presented in steady state creep models. A rate dependent viscoplastic deformation model by Anand, was fitted to the test data from the creep test and tensile test of Sn–Ag–Cu, Sn–Cu, and Sn–Pb solder alloys.


  1. 1.
    ASTM Standards (1998) ASTM E8M: standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials [metric], vol 03.01. The American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pang HLJ, Xiong BS, Kurniawijaya H (2002) Mechanical strength of lead-free solders. GlobalTRONICS technology conference, 2002, Singapore EXPO, 3–5 Sept, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pang HLJ, Xiong BS, Neo CC, Zhang XR, Low TH (2003) Bulk solder and solder joint properties for lead-free solder 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder alloy. IEEE proceedings of 2003 electronic components and technology conference, 2003, pp 673–679Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shi XQ, Zhou W, Pang HLJ, Wang ZP (1999) Effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of 63Sn/37Pb solder alloy. J Electron Packaging 121:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin JK, Silva AD, Frear D, Guo Y, Jang JW, Li L, Mitchell D, Yeung B, Zhang C (2001) Characterization of lead-free solders and under bump merallurgies for flip-chip package. 2001 Electronic components and technology conference, pp 455–462Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim KS, Huh SH, Suganuma K (2002) Effects of cooling speed on microstructure and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys. Mater Sci Eng A333:106–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kanchanomai C, Miyashita Y, Mutoh Y (2002) Low cycle fatigue behavior of Sn-Ag, Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi lead-free solders. J Electron Mater 31:456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harrison MR, Vincent JH, Steen HAH (2001) Lead-free reflow soldering for electronic assembly. Soldering & Surface Mount Technol 13(3):21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Plumbridge WJ, Gagg CR (2001) The mechanical properties of lead-containing and lead-free solders meeting the environmental challenge. Proc Instn Mech Engrs 214 (Part L):153–161Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Technical reports for the lead free solder project: properties reports: room temperature tensile properties of lead-free solder alloys (1998) Lead Free Solder CD-ROM, Project 170502, 6/99, National Center for Manufacturing (NCMS).
  11. 11.
    Lan Hong D, Shi-Wei RL (2001) Characterization of strain rate-dependent behavior of 63Sn-37Pb solder alloy. Proceedings of IPACK’01 The Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition, Kauai, Hawaii, July 8–13 2001, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pang HLJ, Xiong BS, Low TH (2004) Comprehensive mechanics characterization of lead-free 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder. Micro Material and Nano Material, Issue 3Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanimura S, Mimura K, Zhu WH (2000) Practical constitutive models covering wide ranges of strain rates, strains and temperature. Key Eng Mater 177–180:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pang HLJ, Xiong BS, Low TH (2004) Creep and fatigue properties of lead free Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder. Proceedings of 54th ECTC, Las Vegas, vol 2, June 1–4 2004, pp 1333–1337Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morris JW Jr, Song HG, Fay H (2003) Creep properties of Sn-rich joints. Electronic components and technology conference, pp 54–57Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dusek M, Hunt C (2003) Do we know enough about lead-free solders? IPC/JEDEDC, October 2003,
  17. 17.
    Plumbridge WJ, Gagg CR, Peters S (2001) The creep of lead-free solders at elevated temperature. J Electron Mater 30(9):1178–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pang JHL, Xiong BS, Low TH (2003) Constitutive model for lead-free 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder alloy. ICMAT, Singapore, 2003Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lau J, Dauksher W, Vianco P (2003) Acceleration models, constitutive equations, and reliability of lead-free solders and joints. IEEE proceedings of 2003 electronic components and technology conference, pp 229–236Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pang J, Schubert A (2002) Lead free solder materials and reliability performance. Short course notes at 4th electronics packaging technology conference, lead-free workshop, 10 Dec 2002Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pang JHL, Xiong BS (2005) Mechanical properties for 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Lead free solder alloy. IEEE Trans Components Packaging Technol 28(4):830–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pang JHL, Xiong BS, Che FX (2004) Modeling stress strain curves for lead-free Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder. IEEE proceedings of EuroSime 2004 conference, Belgium, 9–12 MayGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anand L (1985) Constitutive equations for hot working of metals. J Plasticity 1:213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown SB, Kwon HK, Anand L (1989) An internal variable constitutive model for hot working of metals. Int J Plastic 5:95–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations