Tests of Hypotheses Based on a Single Sample
A parameter can be estimated from sample data either by a single number (a point estimate) or an entire interval of plausible values (a confidence interval). Frequently, however, the objective of an investigation is not to estimate a parameter but to decide which of two contradictory claims about the parameter is correct. Methods for accomplishing this comprise the part of statistical inference called hypothesis testing. In this chapter, we first discuss some of the basic concepts and terminology in hypothesis testing and then develop decision procedures for the most frequently encountered testing problems based on a sample from a single population.