The United States (US) changed in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City. Certainly two wars, one in Afghanistan and one in Iraq, would have been unlikely without the preceding terrorist attacks. The state embarked on extensive infrastructural and logistical transformations aimed at preventing future attacks. This effort resulted in massive changes in the federal bureaucracy with the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, public health campaigns aimed at educating the general public about the potential threat of disasters, and a seemingly constant heightened state of alert intended to keep the US public vigilant and ready for other future calamities.
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