Advertisement

Elder Caregiving in Rural Communities

  • Kathleen C. Buckwalter
  • Linda L. Davis
Chapter
Part of the Caregiving: Research, Practice, Policy book series (CARE)

Abstract

Projected demographic trends indicate a dramatic increase in this country’s elderly population in the twenty-first century (Rogers, 2002; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Thus, elder care looms as both a current and future public health concern for our nation. Nowhere is this issue more pressing than in rural communities, which have proportionately more older residents (Rogers, 2002); 29 states, mostly in the Midwest and South, report elder populations in excess of the national average (12.4%), with almost one in three Black elders in the South residing in a rural area (Coward & Krout, 1998; U.S. Census, 2000). At present about a quarter of all elders in the United States live with either their spouses or alone in a rural community. Because of employment-related migration of young and middle-aged adults to urban centers, fewer elders live with or have regular access to their children and grandchildren, which can be a chronically stressful situation (Johnson, 1998). Rural America is characterized by growing diversity and the rural aged are a heterogeneous lot, who present unique challenges to the health, service, and aging networks.

Keywords

Rural Community Family Caregiver Informal Caregiver Nurse Care Manager Rural Elder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Archbold, P. (2005). Good research takes a village. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(3), 1–4.Google Scholar
  2. Archbold, P., Stewart, B., Miller, L., Harvath, T., Greenlick, M., Van Buren, L., et al. (1995). The PREP system of nursing interventions: A pilot test with families caring for older members. Preparedness (PR), enrichment (E) and predictability (P). Research in Nursing & Health, 18(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arno, P. S., Levine, C., & Memmott, M. M. (1999). The economic value of informal caregiving. Health Affairs, 18(2), 182–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, N. D. (1997). Formal home care services: Examining the long-term care needs of rural older women. Journal of Case Management, 6(4), 162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buckwalter, K., & Davis, L. (2002). Elder caregiving in rural communities [online]. NFCSP Issue Brief IOWA: Administration on Aging May 1, 2003. Available from http://www.aowogov/alzheimers/cavenetwork/issuebriefs0302/issuebriefs.html.
  6. Buckwalter, K., Hall, G., Kelly, A., Sime, A., Richards, B., & Gerdner, L. (1992). PLST model – Effectiveness for rural ADRD caregivers (Grant No. 5R01NR03234). Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research.Google Scholar
  7. Coburn, E. F., & Bolda, E. J. (2001). Rural elders and long-term care. The Western Journal of Medicine, 174(3), 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Connell, C. M., Kole, S. L., Avey, H., Benedict, C. J., & Gilman, S. (1996). Attitudes about Alzheimer’s disease and the dementia service delivery network among family caregivers and service providers in rural Michigan. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, May/June, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coward, R., & Krout, J. (Eds.). (1998). Aging in rural settings: Life circumstances and distinctive features. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Coward, R., McLaughlin, D., Duncan, P., & Bull, N. (1994). An overview of health and aging in rural America. In R. Coward, N. Bull, G. Kulkulka, & J. Galliheer (Eds.), Health service for rural elders (pp. 1–32). New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  11. Coward, R. T., Netzer, J. K., & Mullins, R. A. (1996). Residential differences in the incidence of nursing home admissions across a six-year period. Journal of Gerontology, 51(5), S258–S267.Google Scholar
  12. Davis, R., & Magilvy, J. K. (2000). Quiet pride: The experience of chronic illness by rural older adults. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(4), 385–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gerdner, L., Buckwalter, K. C., & Reed, D. (2002). Impact of a psychoeducational intervention on caregiver response to behavioral problems. Nursing Research, 51(6), 363–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henderson, M. C. (1992). Families in transition: Caring for the rural elderly. Family & Community Health, 14(4), 61–70.Google Scholar
  15. Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco. (1996). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Princeton, NJ: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.Google Scholar
  16. Johnson, J. E. (1991). Health care practices of the rural aged. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 17(8), 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson, J. E. (1998). Stress, social support and health in frontier elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 24(5), 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelley, L. S., Buckwalter, K. C., & Maas, M. L. (1999). Access to health care resources for family caregivers of elderly persons with dementia. Nursing Outlook, 47(1), 8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krout, J. (1994). An overview of older rural populations and community-based services. In J. Krout (Ed.), Providing community-based services to the rural elderly (pp. 3–19). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Lassiter, P. G. (1992). A community development perspective for rural nursing. Family & Community Health, 14(4), 29–39.Google Scholar
  21. Lee, H. J. (1993). Rural elderly individuals: Strategies for delivery of nursing care. Rural Nursing in Nursing Clinics of North America, 28(1), 219–230.Google Scholar
  22. Magilvy, J. K., & Congdon, J. G. (2000). The crisis of health care transitions for rural older adults. Public Health Nursing, 17(5), 336–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McAuley, W. J., Spector, W. D., Van Nostrand, J., & Shaffer, T. (2004). The influence of rural location on utilization of formal home care: The role of Medicaid. The Gerontologist, 44(5), 655–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MetLife. (2004). Miles away: The MetLife study of long-distance caregiving. Retrieved April 14, 2008, http://www.caregiving.org/data/milesaway.pdf.
  25. Miller, L. L., Hornbrook, M. C., Archbold, P. G., & Stewart, B. J. (1996). Development of use and cost measures in a nursing intervention for family caregivers and frail elderly patients. Research in Nursing & Health, 18(1), 273–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. National Alliance for Caregiving & AARP. (1997, June). Family caregiving in the U.S. Findings from a national survey. Bethesda, MD: National Alliance for Caregiving & AARP.Google Scholar
  27. National Family Caregivers Association. (2000). Caregiver survey-2000. Kensington, MD: National Family Caregivers Association.Google Scholar
  28. Roberto, K. A., Blieszner, R., Reynolds, S., & Byrne, A. (2001). Caregivers of rural older adults (research brief no. 2). Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech Center for Gerontology.Google Scholar
  29. Robinson, K. M. (1988). A social skills training program for adult caregivers. Advances in Nursing Science, 10(2), 59–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson, K. (1990). The relationship between social skills, social support, self-esteem, and burden in adult caregivers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15(7), 788–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rogers, C. C. (1993). Health status and use of health care services by the older population (RDDR-86). Washington, DC: Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  32. Rogers, C. C. (1998). Poverty of older women across the rural–urban continuum. Rural Development Perspectives, 13(2), 2–9.Google Scholar
  33. Rogers, C. C. (1999). Changes in the older population and implications for rural areas (RDRR-90). Washington, DC: Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  34. Rogers, C. C. (2002). The older population in 21st century rural America. Rural America, 17(3), 2–10.Google Scholar
  35. Sanford, J. T., & Townsend-Rocchiccioli, J. (2004). The perceived health of rural caregivers. Geriatric Nursing, 25(3), 145–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmall, V. (1995). Family caregiver education and training: Enhancing self-efficacy. Journal of Case Management, 4(4), 156–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Schumacher, K., Stewart, B., Archbold, P., Dood, M., & Dibble, S. (2000). Family caregiving skill: Development of the concept. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(3), 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwenk, R. N. (1994). Income and consumer expenditures or rural elders. Family Economics Review, 7(3), 20–27.Google Scholar
  39. Siegel, J. S. (1993). A generation of change: A profile of America’s older population. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  40. Stolley, J. M., Reed, D., & Buckwalter, K. C. (2002). Caregiving appraisal and interventions based on the progressively lowered stress threshold model. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 17(2), 110–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Toseland, R., Smith, G., & McCallion, P. (2001). Helping family caregivers. In A. Gitterman (Ed.), Handbook of social work and practice with vulnerable and resilient populations (2nd ed., pp. 548–581). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Internet release on population projections. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from www.censu.gov.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John A. Hartford Center of Geriatric Nursing Excellence, College of NursingUniversity of IowaIowaUSA
  2. 2.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations