Gynecological Infections

  • Liron Pantanowitz
  • R. Marshall Austin
  • Pam Michelow
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 17)


Infections of the female genital tract, some of which are sexually transmitted, are common and therefore an important public health issue. Although the purpose of a Pap test is to look for epithelial abnormalities, several infections can be diagnosed on cervical cytology. These infections include bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This chapter covers common and rare infections likely to be encountered on a cervicovaginal Pap test.


Bacterial Vaginosis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Genital Herpes Female Genital Tract Vaginal Discharge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Aslan DL, McKeon DM, Stelow EB, Gulbahce HE, Kjeldahl K, Pambuccian SE. The diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis in liquid-based Pap tests: morphological characteristics. Diagn Cytopathol. 2005;32:253–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Discacciati M, Simoes J, Amaral R, Brolazo E, Rabelo-Santos S, Westin M, et al. Presence of 20% or more clue cells: an accurate criterion for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in Papanicolaou cervical smears. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:272–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Giacomini G. Permanent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: gram stain or Papanicolaou stain? Diagn Cytopathol. 2000;23:292–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gupta R, Dey P, Jain V, Gupta N. Cervical tuberculosis detection in Papanicolaou-stained smear: case report with review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009;37:592–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang JC, Naylor B. Cytomegalovirus infection of the cervix detected by cytology and histology: a report of five cases. Cytopathology. 1993;4:237–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leiman G, Markowitz S, Margolius KA. Cytologic detection of cervical granuloma inguinale. Diagn Cytopathol. 1986;2:138–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McMillan A. The detection of genital tract infection by Papanicolaou-stained tests. Cytopathology. 2006;17:317–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Noël JC, Engohan-Aloghe C. Morphologic criteria associated with Trichomonas vaginalis in liquid-based cytology. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:582–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Pantanowitz L, Florence RR, Goulart RA, Otis CN. Trichomonas vaginalis p16 immunoreactivity in cervicovaginal Pap tests: a diagnostic pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol. 2005;33:210–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tambouret R. Gynecologic infections. In: Kradin RL, ­editor. Diagnostic pathology of infectious disease. Philadelphia: ­Saunders Elsevier; 2010. p. 443–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liron Pantanowitz
    • 1
  • R. Marshall Austin
    • 2
  • Pam Michelow
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyMagee-Women’s Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Cytology Unit, Department of Anatomical PathologyUniversity of the Witwatersrand and National Health Laboratory ServiceJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations