Wastewater Critical Infrastructure Security and Protection
The use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) in wastewater utilities is not as prevalent as in the drinking water industry. One of the main reasons is the perception that the wastewater is already contaminated. The drinking water and wastewater industry share a common interest in security; however, the security and EWS are more advanced in the drinking water sector. This advancement is partially due to the perception that a contamination event would have a more direct impact on a water supply system than on a wastewater system. In addition, the Federal government has invested more resources and mandated more actions within the drinking water industry. Critical issues addressed in this chapter are the development and deployment of EWS to protect wastewater utilities from chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) contamination events. Currently, technology does not exist to measure individual CBR contaminants with a single sensor and only a limited number of sensors can be used to detect CBRs in wastewater. The early detection of a CBR event provides a greater chance for the treatment plant operator to respond expeditiously; therefore, the CBR monitoring location is as important as identifying which contaminants or surrogate parameters to monitor.
KeywordsEarly Warning System Contamination Event Wastewater System National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Wastewater Collection
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