Headache in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Diagnosis, Including Migraine and Its Subtypes
This chapter reviews the evaluation and diagnosis of children and adolescents who present with episodic migraine and its subtypes. The first part of the chapter describes the evaluation of headaches in children and adolescents. Clinical pearls on common temporal patterns, likelihood of secondary headache, proper examination, and shortcuts to diagnosis are presented. An extensive section on pediatric headache characteristics is provided to expedite diagnosis. Guidelines on ancillary pediatric workup are provided, in particular when and how to look for secondary causes of headache. Key epidemiologic features of pediatric headache that bear on diagnosis are summarized. Crucial diagnostic criteria for pediatric episodic migraine with and without aura are reviewed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of pediatric hemiplegic migraine and basilar-type migraine.
KeywordsPediatric headache Pediatric migraine Familial hemiplegic migraine Basilar-type migraine Secondary pediatric headaches Secondary headache workup
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