Advertisement

Neuromodulators and Fillers for Periorbital Rejuvenation

  • Kenneth C. Y. Yu
  • Kartik D. Nettar
  • Corey S. Maas
Chapter

Abstract

The periorbital region is at the pinnacle of conferring youth and vitality to the face. Facial lines, furrows, and hollows can signify fatigue and aging, while smooth skin and convexities convey a cherubic, youthful impression. Surgical rejuvenation of the periorbital region continues to play a large role in achieving the latter. However, in patients with hyperfunctional lines and tear trough or other contour deformities, neurodmodulators and injectable soft-tissue fillers play a substantial, growing role in their treatment. With the advent of newer technology, the armamentarium of products available to cosmetic surgeons continues to expand. Keeping abreast of these products, their indications and nuances are paramount to achieving a safe and successful result.

Keywords

Cervical Dystonia Frontalis Muscle Orbital Septum Corrugator Supercilii Periorbital Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Aoki KR, Guyer B. Botulinum toxin type A and other botulinum toxin serotypes: a comparative review of biochemical and pharmacological actions. Eur J Neurol. 2001;8 Suppl 5:21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aoki KR. A comparison of the safety margins of botulinum ­neurotoxin serotypes A, B, and F in mice. Toxicon. 2001;39:1815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carruthers J, Glogau RG, Blitzer A. Advances in facial rejuvenation: botulinum toxin type A, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, and combination therapies – consensus recommendations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(Suppl):5S–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ramirez AL, Reeck J, Maas CS. Botulinum toxin type (MyoBloc) in the management of hyperkinetic facial lines. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126(5):459–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramirez AL, Reeck J, Maas CS. Preliminary experience with botulinum toxin type B in hyperkinetic facial lines. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109(6):2154–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brandt FS, Cazzaniga A. Hyaluronic acid fillers: Restylane and Perlane. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2007;15:63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lowe NJ, Maxwell A, Lowe P, et al. Hyaluronic acid fillers: adverse reactions and skin testing. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:930–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Micheels P. Human antihyaluronic acid antibodies: is it possible? Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:185–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maas CS, Yu K, Egan KK. Neuromodulators and injectable soft tissue substitutes. In: Papel I, editor. Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. New York: Thieme; 2009. p. 346.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahn M, Catten M, Maas CS. Temporal browlift using botulinum toxin. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:1129–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maas CS, Kim EJ. Temporal browlift using botulinum toxin A: an update. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112 Suppl 5:109S–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Macdonald MR, Spiegel JH, Raven RB, et al. An anatomical approach to glabellar rhytids. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124:1315–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rostan E. Collagen fillers. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2007;15:55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Born T. Hyaluronic acids. Clin Plast Surg. 2006;33:525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Boulle K. Management of complications after implantation of fillers. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004;3:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carruthers J, Carruthers A. Complications of botulinum toxin type A. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2007;15:51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schanz S, Shippert W, Ulmer A, et al. Arterial embolization caused by injection of hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finn JC, Cox S. Fillers in the periorbital complex. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2007;15:123–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alam M, Dover JS, Klein AW, et al. Botulinum A exotoxin for hyperfunctional facial lines: where not to inject. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bailin PLBM. Collagen implantation: clinical applications and lesion selection. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1988;14:49.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Northington ME, Huang CC. Dry eyes and superficial punctate keratitis: a complication of treatment of glabelar dynamic rhytides with botulinum exotoxin A. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:1515–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aristodemou P, Watt L, Baldwin C, et al. Diplopia associated with the cosmetic use of botulinum toxin A for facial rejuvenation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:134–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth C. Y. Yu
    • 2
  • Kartik D. Nettar
    • 3
  • Corey S. Maas
    • 1
  1. 1.The Maas ClinicUniversity of California-San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryWilford Hall Medical CenterLackland Air Force BaseUSA
  3. 3.The Maas ClinicSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations